Effect of Injecting Drug User on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis


  • Lusiana Dewi Saputri Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Vitri Widiyaningsih Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Hanung Prasetya Study Program of Acupuncture, Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health Surakarta




Background: The problem of narcotics abuse is drug users through injecting needles. Injecting drug users are any person who uses narcotics, psychotropics and addictive substances by injection. In addition, another understanding states that injecting drug users (IDU) or Injection Drug Users (IDUs) are users of narcotics/drugs with injecting media. Injecting drug use (IDU) is one of the main causes of HIV infection due to sharing of contaminated injection equipment.
Subjects and Method: The meta-analysis was carried out using the PRISMA flowchart and the PICO model. Population = adolescents and adults. Intervention= IDU/Injection Drug User. Comparison= Not an IDU/Injection Drug User. Outcome= HIV/AIDS events. The articles used in this study were obtained from several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. These articles were collected over 3 months. The keywords to search for articles are as follows “IDU (Injection Drug User)” AND “life style“ ”HIV/ AIDS ”. There were 15 studies, 9 cross-sectional and 6 cohort studies published in 2012-2022 that met the inclusion criteria. Analysis was performed with Revman 5.3.
Results: 15 articles with a study design of 9 cross-sectional and 6 cohort studies from Canada, China, Ukraine, Virginia, Nepal, Cambodia, Scotland, Boston and Africa. Studies show that IDUs (Injecting Drug Users) have a 2.17 times risk of developing HIV/AIDS compared to non-IDUs for HIV/AIDS, and these results are statistically significant (aOR= 2.71; 95% CI= 1.22 to 6.02; p= 0.010).
Conclusion: IDU (Injection Drug User) increases the incidence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) / AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Keywords: IDU, lifestyle, HIV/AIDS, Drugs, Meta-Analysis

Lusiana Dewi Saputri. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: dewislusiana16@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282328370049.


Allen ST, Schneider KE, Mazhnaya A, White RH, O'Rourke A, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, et al. (2022). Factors Associated with Likelihood of Initiating Others into Injection Drug Use Among People Who Inject Drugs in West Virginia. AIDS Behav. doi: 10.1007/s10461-021-03325-6.

Baltazar CS, Horth R, Boothe M, Sathane I, Young P, Langa DC, Condula M, et al. (2019). High Prevalance of HIV, HBSAG and anti HC positivity among people who injected drugs: results of the first bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven sampling in two urban areas in Mozambbique. BMC Pub Health. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4655-2.

Bragazzi NL, Beamish D, Kong JD, Wu J (2021). Illicit Drug Use in Canada and Implications for Suicidal Behaviors, and Household Food Insecurity: Findings from a Large, Nationally Representative Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126425.

Dong H, Hayashi K, Singer J, Milloy M, DeBeck K, Wood E, Kerr T (2019). Trajectories of injection drug use among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada, 1996-2017: Growth mixture modeling using data from prospective cohort studies. Addictions 114(12):2173–2186. doi:10.1111/14756.

El-Akkad S, Hayashi K, Dong H, Day A, McKendry R, Kaur G, Barrios R, et al. (2021) Migration Patterns from An Open Illict Drug Scne and Emergency Dapartement Visits Among People Who Use Illict Drug in Vancover Canada. Subst Use Misuse. 56(12). doi: 10.1080/10826084.2021.1958849.

Hogan S, Page A, Ogbo F, Dixit S, Rajbhandari RM, Rawal B, Deuba K, et al. (2021). Trends and determinants of HIV transmission among men who inject drugs in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal: analysis of cross-sectional studies. BMC Pub Health. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10331-9.

Jiang Z, Xiu C, Yang J, Zhang X, Liu M, Chen X, Liu D (2018). HIV test uptake and related factors amongst heterosexual drug users in Shandong province, Cina. PLOS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204489.

Kemenkes RI. (2020). Infodatin HIV AIDS. Kesehatan. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia: 1-8.

Kuznetsova J, Sereda Y, Denisiuk O, Kravchenko N, Jayaraj J, Smyrnov P, Mykhalchuk T, et al. (2019) Linking intravenous drug users to treatment through non-governmental organizations in Ukraine: how well is it working?. J Infect Dev Ctries. 13:95S–102S. doi: 10.3855/jidc.11291.

Mao X, Leuba SI, Hu Q, Yan H, Wang Z, Lu L, Zhuang M, et al. (2021). Use of multiple recreational drugs is associated with new HIV infections among men who have sex with men in China: a multicenter cross-sectional survey. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10223-y.

Pearce LA, Homayra F, Dale LM, Moallef S, Barker B, Norton A, Hayashi K, et al. (2020). Non Disclourse of Drug Use in Outpatient Health Care Settings: Findings from A Prospective Cohort Study in Vancuver Canada. Int J Drug Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102873.

Sopheab H, Chhea C, Tuot S, Muir JA (2018). HIV prevalence, related risk behaviors, and correlates of HIV in-fection among people who use drugs in Cambodia. BMC Pub Health. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3472-3.

Streed CG, Morgan JR, Gai MJ, Larochelle MR, Paasche-Orlow MK, Taylor JL (2022). Prevalence of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Prescribing Among Persons with Commercial Insurance and Likely Injection Drug Use. JAMA Network Open 2022;5(7): e2221346. doi:2022.21346/jamanetworkopen-2022.06.12.

Trayner KMA, McAuley A, Palmateer NE, Goldberg DJ, Shepherd SJ, Gunson RN, Tweed EJ, et al. (2020). Increased risk of HIV and other drug-related harms associated with inject-ting in public places: national biobehavioural survey of people who inject drugs. Int J Drug Policy. doi: 10.1016.2020.102663.

Tuot S, Mburu G, Mun P, Chhoun P, Chann N, Prem K, Yi S (2019). Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among people who use drugs in Cambodia: a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling method. BMC Infect Dis. doi: 10.1186/ s12879-019-4154-5.

Zhang B, Yan X, Li Y, Zhu H, Liu Z, Lu Z, Jia Z (2021). Epidemic of HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs In Mainland China: cross-sectional study. Harm Reduct J. 18(1): 63. doi: 1186/s12954-021-00511-6.




How to Cite

Saputri, L. D., Widiyaningsih, V., & Prasetya, H. (2023). Effect of Injecting Drug User on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 8(1), 77–87. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.01.07




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>