Meta-Analysis the Effect of Protected Well and Measles Vaccination on Stunting in Children Under Five


  • Edi Pramono Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Hanung Prasetya Acupuncture Department, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Surakarta, Indonesia



Background: Stunting is a condition where children's growth fails (body and brain growth) due to malnutrition for a long time. The incidence of stunting in toddlers needs special attention because it can hinder children's physical and mental development. This study aims to analyze and estimate the effect of protected wells and the measles vaccine on the incidence of stunting in children under five, with a meta-analysis based on primary studies conducted previously.
Subjects and Method: Meta-analysis was carried out in PICO format. Population: Children under five. Intervention: Protected Wells and Measles vaccine status. Comparison: Unprotected Well and Status not vaccinated against measles. Outcome: Stunting incidence. Article searches were carried out using several databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Springerlink. The keywords used are "Protected well" AND Measles vaccine" AND "Stunting in toddlers". Inclusion criteria for the included articles were full-text articles with a cross-sectional design from 2015 to 2023. This study was conducted following PRISMA flow diagram guidelines. Data was analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.
Results: 12 cross-sectional studies from Asia and Africa were selected for meta-analysis. the total sample was 48,128 toddlers. Protected well (aOR= 0.86; 95% CI= 0.75 to 1.00; p= 0.040) and measles vaccine (aOR= 0.59; 95% CI= 0.27 to 1.29; p= 0.190) reduce the risk of stunting in children under five.
Conclusion: Protected wells and administering the measles vaccine reduce the incidence of stunting in toddlers.


protected wells, measles vaccine, stunting, toddlers


Afework E, Mengesha S, Wachamo D (2021). Stunting and Associated Factors among Under-Five-Age Children in West Guji Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. J Nutr Metab, 2021: 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2021/8890725.

Aryastami NK, Shankar A, Kusumawardani N, Besral B, Jahari AB, Achadi E (2017). Low birth weight was the most dominant predictor associated with stunting among children aged 12-23 months in Indonesia. BMC Nutr, 3(1): 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s40795-017-0130-x.

Azmeraw Y, Amegbor PM, Essah M (2021). The Effect of Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors on Obesity. J of Applied Geos Res. 12(4): 58–74. doi: 10.4018/ijagr.2021100104.

Beal T, Tumilowicz A , Sutrisna A, Izwardy D, Neufeld LM (2018) A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Matern. Child Nutr. 14(4): 1–10. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12617.

Chirande L, Victor R, Kimboka S, Issaka AI, Baines SK, Dibley MJ, Agho KE (2015). Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania: evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey. BMC Pediatr. 15(165): 1–13. doi: 10.1186/s-12887-0150482-9.

Danso F, Appiah MA (2023). Prevalence and associated factors influencing stunting and wasting among children of ages 1 to 5 years in Nkwanta South Municipality, Ghana. Nutr. 110. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.111996.

Desalegn BB, Kinfe E, Fikre K, Bosha T (2016). Stunting and Its Associated Factors in Under Five Years Old Children: The Case of Hawassa University Technology Villages, Southern Ethiopia. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 10(11): 25-31. doi: 10.9790/2402-1011022531.

Derso T, Amare T, Biks GA, Bashaw AB, Molla MW. (2015). Stunting, wasting and associated factors among children aged 6–24 months in Dabat health and demographic surveillance system site: A community based cross sectional study in Ethiopia. BMC Pediatr. 17(96): 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s12887-017-0848-2.

Firmansyah RRT, Murti B, Prasetya H (2023). A Meta-Analisis of Correlation between Diarrhea and Stunting in Children Under Five. J Epidemiol Public Health. 8(1): 88-97. doi: 10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.01.08.

Pratama GA, Rahardjo SS, Murti B (2023). Meta-Analysis the Effects of Rotavirus Vaccine, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Maternal Education on Diarrhea in Children Under Five. J Epidemiol Public Health. 8(3): 298-311. doi: 10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.03.02.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI (2016). Situation of Short Toddlers in Indonesia. (Situasi Balita Pendek di Indonesia). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI (2022). Pocket Book of 2022 Indonesian Nutritional Status Study Results (SSGI) (Buku Saku Hasil Studi Status Gizi Indonesia (SSGI) Tahun 2022). Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonsia.

Lukman TNE, Anwar F, Riyadi H, Harjomidjojo H, Martianto D (2021). Birth Weight and Length Associated with Stunting Among Children Under-Five in Indonesia. J Gizi Pangan. 16(1): 99–108.

Maywita E (2018). Risk Factors Causing Stunting in Toddlers Aged 12-59 Months in Kampung Baru Village, Kec. Lubuk Begalung in 2015 (Faktor Risiko Penyebab Terjadinya Stunting Pada Balita Umur 12-59 Bulan Di Ke-lurahan Kampung Baru Kec. Lubuk Begalung Tahun 2015). Jurnal Riset Hesti Medan Akper Kesdam I/BB Medan. 3(1): 56. doi: 10.34008/jurhesti.v3i1.24.

Mazengia AL, Biks GA (2018). Predictors of Stunting among School-Age Children in Northwestern Ethiopia. J Nutr Metab. 2018: 1-7. doi: 10.1155/2018/7521751.

Mengesha A,Hailu S, Birhane M, Belay MM (2021). The prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children under five years of age in southern ethiopia: Community based cross-sectional study. Ann Glob Health. 87(1): 1–14. doi: 10.5334/aogh.3432.

Sahiledengle B, Agho KE, Petrucka P, Kumie A, Beressa G, Atlaw D, Tekalegn Y, et al. (2023). Concurrent wasting and stunting among under-five children in the context of Ethiopia: A generalised mixed-effects modelling. Maternal and Child Nutri. 19(2): 1-20. doi: 10.1111/mcn.13483.

Sartika AN, Khoirunnisa M, Meiyetriani E, Ermayani E, Pramesthi IL, Nur AA (2021). Prenatal and postnatal determinants of stunting at age 0–11 months: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia. PLoS ONE, 16(7): 1–14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254662.

Sewnet SS, Derseh HA, Desyibelew HD, Fentahun N (2021). Undernutrition and associated factors among under-five orphan children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2020: A cross-sectional study. J Nutr Metab. 2021: 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2021/6728497.

Shegaw SS, Hunegnaw AD, Hanna DD, Netsanet F (2020) Undernutrition and associated factors among under-five orphan children in addis abada, Etiopia, 2020: a cross-sectional study. J Nutr Metab. doi: 10.1155/2021/6728-497.

Sulaiman Z, Febrianti D, Said S, Adri K (2021). Risk Factor Analysis of Family Characteristics and Health History of Children Under Five on the Incidence of Stunting in Sidenreng Rappang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. J Epidemiol Public Health. 6(3): 291-298. doi: 10.26911/jepublichealth.2021.06.03.03.

Sumarno TI, Syafiuddin A (2023). Analysis of Well Water Quality and Sanitation Facilities with Stunting Incidents in Lokus Stunting Village, Driyorejo District (Analisis Kualitas Air Sumur dan Sarana Sanitasi Dengan Kejadian Stun-ting di Desa Lokus Stunting Kecamatan Driyorejo). J Ilmu Kes. 1(1): 21–39. doi: 10.9644-/scp.v1i1.332.

Toma TM, Andargie KT, Alula RA, Kebede BM, Gujo MM (2023). Factors associated with wasting and stunting among children aged 06–59 months in South Ari District, Southern Ethiopia: a com-munity-based cross-sectional study. BMC Nutr. 9(1) : 1–16. doi: 10.11-86/s40795-023-00683-3.

Tariku A, Biks GA, Derso T, Wassie MM, Abebe SM (2017). Stunting and its determinant factors among children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. Ital. J. Pediatr. 43(1): 1–9. doi: 10.1186/s13-052-017-0433-1

UNICEF (2021) Early childhood nutrition. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

Woldeamanuel BT, Tesfaye TT (2019). Risk factors associated with under-five stunting, wasting, and underweight based on ethiopian demographic health survey datasets in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. J Nutr Metab. 2019: 1-11. doi: 10.115520196967170.




How to Cite

Pramono, E., Murti, B., & Prasetya, H. (2024). Meta-Analysis the Effect of Protected Well and Measles Vaccination on Stunting in Children Under Five. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 9(2), 204–205.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >>