Meta Analysis – Effect of Occupational Noise on the Risk of Hypertension and Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Industrial Workers
Background: Noise is defined as sound intensity that is unwanted and can pose risks to health and safety at work, such as the risk of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss. This study aims to analyze the effect of occupational noise on the risk of hypertension and noise induced hearing loss in industrial workers.
Subjects and Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using the PRISMA guidelines and the PICO model. Population: industrial workers. Intervention: occupational noise exposure ≥85 dB. Comparison: occupational noise exposure <85 dB. Outcome: hypertension and noise induced hearing loss. Articles are collected from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Schoolar. The keywords used “occupational noise and hypertension” OR “occupational noise and hearing loss” AND “occupational noise” OR “hypertension” AND “hearing loss” AND “cross sectional study”. A total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, namely primary full text paper, cross-sectional study design, with a relationship size adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), labor research subjects, interventions in the form of exposure to noise ≥85 dB and outcomes in the form of hypertension and noise induced hearing loss for meta-analyses were then assessed using RevMan 5.3.
Results: Meta-analysis included 13 cross sectional studies from China, Brazil, Ethiopia, Jordan, South Africa, Thailand, Kuwait, and Pakistan. Occupational noise ≥85 dB significantly increased the risk of hypertension (aOR= 2.07; 95% CI= 1.31 to 3.26; p= 0.002) and hearing loss (aOR= 1.97; 95% CI= 1.36 to 2.85; p= 0.003) than occupational noise <85 dB.
Conclusion: Occupational noise ≥85 dB increases the risk of hypertension and hearing loss in industrial workers.
Keywords: occupational noise, hypertension, hearing loss, workers
Ila Izzatus Salamah. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: email@example.com. Mobile: +62858868132490.
Abraham Z, Massawe E, Ntunaguzi D, Ka-hinga A, Mawala S (2019). Prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss among textile industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Ann Glob Health. 85(1):1–6.
Almaayeh M, Al-Musa A, Khader YS (2018). Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among Jordanian industrial workers and its associated factors. Work. 61(2): 267–271. doi: 10.3233/WOR-182797.
Buqammaz M, Gasana J, Alahmad B, Shebl M, Albloushi D (2021). Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among migrant workers in Kuwait. Int J Environ Res Publich Health. 18(10). doi: 10.3390/ijerph.18105295.
Chen S, Ni Y, Zhang L, Kong L, Lu L, Yang Z, Yang L et al (2017). Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China. BMC Public Health. 17(1): 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s1288901740500.
de Souza TCF, Perisse ARS, Moura M (2015). Noise exposure and hypertension: Investigation of a silent relationship Environmental and occupational health. BMC Public Health. 15(1): 1–9. doi: 10.1186/s1288901516-71-z.
Feder K, Michaud D, McNamee J, Fitzpatrick E, Hugh D, Leroux T (2017). Prevalence of hazardous occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and hearing protection usage among a representative sample of working Canadians. J Occup Environ Med. 59 (1): 92–113. doi: 10.1097/JOM.000000000000020.
Hamdie SA, Fauzan A, Chandra (2020). The relationship between noise intensity and length of work with the incidence of hypertension among workers at PT. Kondang Buana Asri Year 2020. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 32: 5–11.
Indriyanti LH, Wangi PK, Simanjuntak K (2019). Relationship of noise exposure to increased blood pressure in workers. J Kedokteran Kesehatan. 15(1): 36-45. doi: 10.24853/jkk.15.1.3645.
Khubeka MG (2021). The relationship between occupational noise exposure and noise induced hearing loss in a power plant construction site in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Polymer. 16(1): 1-15.
Lee PJ, Lee BK, Jeon JY, Zhang M, Kang J (2016). Impact of noise on self-rated job satisfication and health in open-plan offices: A stuctural equation modelling approach. Ergonomics. 59(2): 222-234. doi: 10.1080/0140139.2015.10668877.
Li X, Dong Q, Wang B, Song H, Wang S, Zhu B (2019). The influence of occupational noise exposure on cardiovascular and hearing conditions among industrial workers. Sci Rep. 9: 11542. doi: 10.1038/s4159-8-019-47901-2.
Liu J, Xu M, Ding L, Zhang H, Pan L, Liu Q, Ding E, et al. (2016). Prevalence of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese coal miners. J Thorac Dis. 8(3); 442-429. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.02.59.
Mayasari D, Khairunnisa R (2017). Prevention of noise induced hearing loss in workers due to noise. J. Agromedicine. 4(2): 355–360.
Melese M, Adugna DG, Mulat B, Adera A (2022). Hearing loss and its associated factors among metal workshop workers at Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Front Publich Health. 10. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.919239.
Melese M, Adera A, Ambelu A, Gela YY, Diress M (2023). Occupational noise induced pre-hypertension and determinant factors among metal manufacturing workers in Gondar City administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 19: 21–30. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S392876.
Permenaker (2011). About the threshold value of physical and chemical factors at work. Peraturan Menteri Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Republik Indonesia.
Murti B (2018). Methodological research principles and methods. Program studi ilmu kesehatan masyarakat, program pasca sarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.
NIDCD (2022). Available at: Noise-indu-ced hearing loss. National Institute on Defeness and Other Communication Disorders.
Nserat S, Al-Musa A, Khader YS, Slaih AA, Iblan I (2017). Blood pressure of jordanian workers chronically exposed to noise in industrial plants. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 8(4): 217–223. doi: 10.15171/ijoem.2017.1134.
Nuraini B (2015). Risk Factors of Hypertension. J Majority. 4(5): 10–19.
Salawati L (2013). Noise-induced hearing loss. J Occup Environ. Med. 45(6).
Shahid A, Jamali T, Kadir MM (2018). Noise induced hearing loss among an occupational group of textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Occup Med Health Aff. 06(04). doi: 10.4172/232-29-6879.1000282.
Sriopas A, Champan RS, Sutammasa S, Siriwong W (2017). Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand. J Occup Health. 59(1): 55–62. doi: 10.1539/joh.15-0291-OA.
Wang S, Qin Q, Liu L, Han L, Chen Y (2013). A cross-sectional study on the effects of occupational noise exposure on hypertension or cardio-vascular among workers from auto-mobile manufacturing company of Chongqing, China. J Biomed Eng. 06(12): 1137–1142. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.612142.