Effects of Social Support, Perceived Threat, and Witnessing Death on the Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Meta-Analysis

Authors

  • Fatimah Hasna Karima Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Argyo Demartoto Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.03.10

Abstract

Background: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to horrific events and experience a series of reactions after repeated trauma, stress, and scary thoughts. The risk of PTSD is influenced by several factors such as social support, perceived threat, and witnessing death. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of social support, perceived threat, and witnessing death on the risk of PTSD using a meta-analysis of primary studies conducted by previous authors.

Subjects and Method: This was a systematic review and meta-analytic study. This study used the PICO model. The meta-analytic study was carried out by searching for articles from databases in electronic form using Google scholar, PubMed, and Elsevier. An article search was conducted from 1 to 28 February 2023. The keywords used were “Post-traumatic Stress Disorder” OR “PTSD” AND “Social Support” AND “Witnessing death” AND “Perceiving threat” AND “Multivariate” AND “Cross-Sectional”. The inclusion criteria for this study were complete articles using cross-sectional research, published in 2013-2023. Analysis of the articles in this study used RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: A total of 22 cross-sectional studies from North America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia were selected for thi study. Social support has a lower risk of experiencing PTSD by 0.38 times compared to people who do not receive social support (aOR=0.38; 95% CI= 0.18 to 0.77; p= 0.007). People with perceived threats have a risk of experiencing PTSD by 2.29 times compared to people without perceived threats (aOR= 2.29; 95% CI= 1.58 to 3.33; p<0.001). People who witness death have a risk of experiencing PTSD by 1.63 times compared to people who do not witness death (aOR= 1.63; 95% CI= 1.23 to 2.15; p<0.006).

Conclusion: Social support can significantly reduce the risk of PTSD. Perceived threat and witnessing death can significantly increase the risk of PTSD.

Keywords: PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder, social support, perceived threat, witnessing death

Correspondence: Fatimah Hasna Karima. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: fatimahhasna01@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281215184110.

References

Acharya S, Bhatta DN, Assannangkornchai S (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among children of Kathmandu 1 year after the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2017.100.

Alenko A, Berhani H, Tareke AA, Reta W, Bariso M, Mulat E, Kenenisa C, et al. (2022). Posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors among drivers surviving road traffic crashes in Southwest Ethiopia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. doi:10.2147/NDT.S233976.

Ali D, Azale T, Wondie M, Tadesse J (2022). About six in ten survivors of the November 2020 Maikadra massacre suffer from posttrauma stress disorder, Northwest Ethiopia. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 15: 251–260. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S338823.

Anbesaw T, Zenebe Y, Asmamaw A, Shegaw M, Birru N (2022). Post-traumatic stress disorder and associated factors among people who experienced traumatic events in Dessie town, Ethiopia, 2022: A community based study. Front. Psychiatry. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1026878.

Asnakew S, Shumet S, Ginbare W, Legas G, Haile K (2019). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and associated factors among Koshe landslide survivors, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a community-based, cross sectional study. BMJ Open. 9(6). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-02-8550.

Bezabh YH, Abebe SM, Fanta T, Tadese A, Tulu M (2018). Prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder among emergency responders of Addis Ababa fire and emergency control and prevention service authority, Ethiopia: an institution-based, cross-sectional study. BMJ open. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020705.

Caramanica K, Brackbill RM, Stellman SD, Farfel MR (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder after hurricane sandy among persons exposed to the 9/11 disaster. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 17(1): 356–362. doi: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000173.

Dahal HR, Kumar S, Thapa DK. (2018) Prevalence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorders among the survivors of 2015 Nepal earthquake, in Dhading, Nepal. Sleep Hypn. 20(2): 2128–139. doi: 10.5350/Sleep.Hypn.2017.19.0145.

Duko B, Toma A, Abraham Y, Kebble P (2020). Post-traumatic stress disorder and its correlates among people living with HIV in Southern Ethiopia, an institutionally based cross-sectional study. Psychiatr Q. doi: 10.1007/s11126-020-09735-4.

ISTSS (2020). Trauma during adulthood. ISTSS. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

Kabunga A, Okalo P, Nalwoga V, Apili B (2022). Landslide disasters in eastern Uganda:post-traumatic stress disorder

and its correlates among survivors in Bududa district. BMC Psychol. 10(1). 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s40359-022-01001-5.

Kabunga A, Okalo P (2021). Frontline nurses’ post-traumatic stress disorder and associated predictive factors during the second wave of COVID-19 in Central, Uganda. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 3627-3633. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S340771.

Kassaye A, Demilew D, Fanta B, Mulat H, Ali D, Seid J, Mulugeta A, et al. (2022). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and its associated factors among war-affected residents in Woldia Town, North East Ethiopia, 2022; community based cross-sectional study. Res Sq. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs2319793/v1.

Koenen KC, Ratanatharathorn A, Ng L, McLaughlin KA, Bromet EJ, Stein DJ, Karam EG, et al. (2017). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the world mental health surveys. Psychol Med. 47(13): 2260–2274. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717000708.

Levey EJ, Gelaye B, Koenen K, Zhong QY, Basu A, Rondon MB, Sancez S, et al. (2017). Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Arch. Women’s Ment. Health. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0776-z.

Madoro D, Kerebih H, Habtamu Y, Tsadik M, Mokona H, Molla A, Wondie T, et al. (2022) Post traumatic stress disorder and associated factors among internally displaced people in post-traumatic stress disorder and associated factors among internally displaced people in South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat. 2317-2326. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S267307.

Makango B, Alemu ZA, Solomon T, Lemma N, Girma T, Mohammednur T, Alayu M, et al. (2023). Prevalence and factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced people in camps at Debre Berhan, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.BMC Psychiatry. 23(81): 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s12888-023-04570-w.

Moller AT, Backstorm T, Sondergaard HP, Helstrom L (2014). Identifying Risk Factors for PTSD in Women Seeking Medical Help after Rape. Plos one. 9(10): e111136. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111136.

Njiro BJ, Ndumwa HP, Msenga CJ, Kawala T, Matola E, Mhonda J, Corbin H, et al. (2021). Depression, suicidality and associated risk factors among police officers in urban Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 34(e100448). doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2020-100448.

Si M, Su X, Jiang Y, Wang W, Gu X, Ma L, Li J, et al. (2021). Prevalence and predictors of PTSD during the containment stage of COVID-19 epidemic among college female students in China. Res Sq. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs368796/v1.

Tamir TT, Kassa SF, Gebeyehu DA (2022). A multi-institutional study of post-traumatic stress disorder and its risk factors in Ethiopian pediatric patients with physical trauma. BMC Psychiatry. 22(271): doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-03930-2.

Taye B (2022). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress depression symptoms and associated factors in post-conflict areas, North Shoa Zone, Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.Ethiopia: Asrat Woldeyes Health Science Campus.

Tedla A (2022). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and its associated factors among military personnel who were admitted at North West Command Level Three Military Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest, Ethiopia, 2022. Ethiopia: Bahir Dar University.

WHO (2021). Mental Health Atlas 2020. World Health Organization.

Yetter TA, Masten E (2022). Post traumatic stress disorder. Off J Am Acad Physician Assist. 35(5): 62–63. doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000824984.90489.95.

Yohannes K, Gebeyehu A, Adera T, Ayano G, Fekadu W (2018). Prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors of road traffic accidents in Ethiopia. Int J Ment Health Syst. doi: 10.1186/s13033-018-0229-8.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-16

How to Cite

Karima, F. H., Demartoto, A., & Murti, B. (2023). Effects of Social Support, Perceived Threat, and Witnessing Death on the Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Meta-Analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 8(3), 396–409. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.03.10

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>