Meta-Analysis the Effects of Rotavirus Vaccine, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Maternal Education on Diarrhea in Children Under Five

Authors

  • Genn Andrean Pratama Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Setyo Sri Rahardjo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.03.02

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is an infectious disease that can cause death in children under five years. Diarrheal disease is a disease with the highest mortality and morbidity after pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to analyze and estimate the effect of rotavirus vaccine, exclusive breastfeeding, and mother's education level on the incidence of diarrhea in toddlers, with a meta-analysis based on previously conducted primary studies.

Subjects and Method: This article was prepared using a systematic review and meta-analytic study. This research was conducted using the PICO model. Meta-analytic studies were conducted by searching for articles from databases in electronic form using PubMed, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect, and Springer Link. Article searches were conducted from 1-28 February 2023. The keywords used were “Vacinnation” OR “Exclusive breastfeeding” OR “Educational Mother” OR “Infection” OR “Diarrhea Childhood”. The inclusion criteria for this study were complete articles using cross-sectional research, published years from 2013-2022. Analysis of the articles used RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: A total of 24 cross-sectional studies from Africa and Asia were selected for systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that not given rotavirus vaccine had a 3.60 times the risk of experiencing diarrhea compared to those given rotavirus vaccine (aOR= 3.60; 95% CI= 2.31 to 5.64; p<0.001), not given exclusive breastfeeding had a risk of experiencing diarrhea 3.28 times compared with those who were given exclusive breastfeeding (aOR= 3.28; 95% CI= 2.24 to 4.80; p<0.001), and children who had mothers with low education levels had a 2.08 times higher risk of experiencing diarrhea compared to children who had mothers with low education levels which is higher (aOR= 2.08; 95% CI= 1.71 to 2.54; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Not being given the rotavirus vaccine, not being given exclusive breastfeeding, and the mother's low education level are at risk of increasing the incidence of diarrhea in toddlers.

Keywords: rotavirus vaccine, exclusive breastfeeding, mother's level of education, child diarrhea

Correspondence: Genn Andrean Pratama. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: andreanpratama0077@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282278467441.

References

Alemayehu B, Ayele BT, Kloos H, Ambelu A (2019). Individual and community-level risk factors in under-five children diarrhea among agroecological zones in southwestern Ethiopia. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 224: 1-8. doi: 10.1016/.ijheh.2019.113447.

Alemayehu M, Alemu T, Astatkie A (2020). Prevalence and determinants of diarrhea among under-five children in Benna Tsemay District, South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Adv public health. 2020: 1–11. doi: 10.1155/2020/423-7368.

Amamo DD, Selgedo MB, Dukale YH (2020). Prevalence of acute diarrhea and associated precipitating factors among under-five children in West Guji Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia, 2018. J Infect. Dis. 12(1): 1–12. doi: 10.5897/JIDI2019.0186.

Ayele A, Awoke W, Tarekegn M (2014). Cross-sectional Survey; Assessment of Diarrheal Disease Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Children Under Five in Enemay District, North-west Ethiopia. Glob J. Med. 14(3): 1-3. doi: 10.4236/health.2020.1210096.

Azage M, Kumie A, Worku A, Bagtzoglou AC (2016). Childhood diarrhea in high and low hotspot districts of Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 35: 1-13. doi: 10.1186/s41043-016-0052-2.

Bekele D, Merdassa E, Desalegn M, Mosisa G, Turi E (2021). Determinants of diarrhea in under-five children among health extension model and non-model families in wama hagelo district, west ethiopia. J. Multidiscip. Healthc. 14 (2021): 2803–2815. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S324846.

Dagnew AB, Tewabe T, Miskir Y, Eshetu T, Kefelegn W, Zerihun K (2019). Prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among under-five children in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. BMC Infect. Dis. 19 (417): 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4030-3.

Feleke Y, Legesse A, Abebe M (2022). Prevalence of diarrhea, feeding practice, and associated factors among children under five years in Bereh District ,2022. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2022: 1-13. doi: 10.1155/2022/413-9648.

Gambura E, Birke W, Terefe G, Yohanes T, Laelago T (2016). Behavioral factors associated with under-five diarrhoeal-morbidity in rural community of Gummer Woreda, Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia. OALib Journal. 2016 (3): 1–9. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1102570.

Gedamu G, Kumie A, Haftu D (2017). Magnitude and Associated Factors of Diarrhea among Under Five Children in Farta Wereda. Qual Prim Care. 25(4): 199–207. doi: 10.0430/s77261.

Getachew A, Guadu T, Tadie A, Gizaw Z, Gebrehiwot M, Cherkos DH, Menber MA, et al. (2018). Diarrhea Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors among Under-Five Children in Rural Areas of North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Int J Pediatr. 2018: 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2018/6031594.

Gizaw Z, Woldu W, Bitew BD (2017). Child feeding practices and diarrhea disease among children less than two years of age of the nomadic people in Hada-leala District, Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia. Int Breastfeed J. 12 (24): 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s13006-017-0115-z.

Hashi A, Kumie A, Gasana J (2016). Prevalence of Diarrhoea and Associated Factors among Under-Five Children in Jigjiga District, Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia. Open J. Prev. Med. 6: 233–246. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2016.610022.

Melese B, Paulos W, Astawesegn FH, Gelgelu TB (2019). Prevalence of diarrheal diseases and associated factors among under-five children in Dale District, Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 19 (1235): 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7579-2.

Mengistie B, Berhane Y, Worku A (2013) Prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors among children under-five years of age in Eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Open J Prev Med. 3(7): 446–453. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37060.

Mohammed S, Tamiru D (2014). The Burden of Diarrheal Diseases among Children under Five Years of Age in Arba Minch District, Southern Ethiopia, and Associated Risk Factors. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014: 1-6. doi: 10.1155/2014/654901.

Mulu E, NigusieA, Endehabtu BF (2020). Prevalence and factors associated with acute diarrheal disease among under-five children in Southern Ethiopia : Community based cross sectional study. Res Sq. 2020: 1–19. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs28183/v1.

Negesse Y, Taddese AA, Negesse A, Ayele TA (2021). Trends and determinants of diarrhea among under-five children in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study: multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach evidenced by EDHS 2000–2016 data. BMC Public Health. 21(1): 1–16. doi: 10.1186/s12889021-101-91-3.

Nsabimana J, Hbatu M, Mureithi C (2017). Factors Contributing to Diarrheal Diseases among Children Less than Five Years in Nyarugenge District, Rwanda. J Trop Dis. 5(3): 1-8. doi: 10.4172/2329-891x.1000238.

Sahiledengle B, Agho K (2021). Determinants of childhood diarrhea in households with improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Ethiopia: Evidence from a Repeated Cross-Sectional Study. Environ Health Insights. 15: 1-12. doi: 10.1177/11786302211025180.

Santika NKA, Efendi F, Rachmawati PD, Mishbahatul E, Kusnanto K, Astutik E (2020). Children and Youth Services Review Determinants of diarrhea among children under two years old in Indonesia. Child Youth Serv Rev. 111(2019): 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104838.

Shine S, Muhamud S, Adanew S, Demelash A, Abate M (2020). Prevalence and associated factors of diarrhea among under-five children in Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia 2018: A cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 20(1): 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-4905-3.

Shumetie G, Gedefaw M, Kebede A, Derso T (2018). Exclusive breastfeeding and rotavirus vaccination are associated with decreased diarrhea morbidity among under-five children in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia Fred Paccaud. Public Health Rev. 39(1): 1-12. doi: 10.1186/s40985-018-0107-6.

WHO (2017). Diarrhoeal Disease. World Health Organization.

Woldu W, Bitew BD, Gizaw Z (2016). Socioeconomic factors associated with diarrheal diseases among under-five children of the nomadic population in northeast Ethiopia. Trop Med Health. 44 (40): 7–14. doi: 10.1186/s41182-016-0040-7.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-16

How to Cite

Pratama, G. A., Rahardjo, S. S., & Murti, B. (2023). Meta-Analysis the Effects of Rotavirus Vaccine, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Maternal Education on Diarrhea in Children Under Five. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 8(3), 298–311. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.03.02

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>