Effects of Physical Activity, Fruit and Vegetables Intake, and Alcohol Consumption on Overweight or Obesity: Meta-Analysis
AbstractBackground: Overweight or obesity is a public health problem worldwide which is increasing both in the general population and in people with chronic diseases. Overall both children and adults are vulnerable to overweight or obesity. This study aims to examine the effect of physical activity, consumption of vegetables and alcohol on overweight or obesity using a meta-analysis.Subjects and Method: Meta-analysis was carried out using the PRISMA flowchart and the PICO model. Population: age 6 to 64 years. Intervention: low physical activity, low vegetable and fruit consumption, and high alcohol. Comparison: high physical activity, high vegetable and fruit consumption, and alcohol low. Outcome: overweight or obese. The databases used are Google Scholar, PubMed, and Proquest with keywords (Overweight OR Obesity OR "BMI Status") AND (“Physical Activity” OR Exercise OR Sport OR Inactive) AND (Vegetable AND Fruit) AND Alcohol AND "Cross Sectional" AND aOR. There were 22 cross-sectional studies published in 2012-2022 that met the inclusion criteria. Analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3.Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 22 articles with a cross-sectional study design originating from Indonesia, Ghana, Arab Emirates, Texas, Ethiopia, Uganda, Botswana, Congo, Bahir Dar, North Western, Toronto, Zambia, Cameroon and Tanzania involving 91,031 ages 6-64 years. The results of the meta-analysis showed that someone with low physical activity had a risk of being overweight or obese 1.35 times compared to high physical activity (aOR= 1.35; 95% CI= 1.09 to 1.68; p<0.001), someone with high consumption of vegetables and fruit have a risk of experiencing overweight or obesity 1.40 times compared to high consumption of vegetables and fruits (aOR= 1.40; 95%CI= 0.94 to 2.08; p<0.001), and someone with high alcohol has a risk of experiencing overweight or obesity 1.47 times compared low alcohol (aOR= 1.47; 95% CI= 1.31 to 1.65; p<0.001).Conclusion: Low vegetable and fruit consumption, high alcohol consumption and low physical activity can increase the risk of being overweight or obese. Keywords: social support, self-efficacy, social cognitive theory, hypertension, medication adherence Correspondence: Dena Tri Solehaini. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: email@example.com. Mobile: +6282329210977.
Anderson P (2008). The Impact of Alcohol on Health. Beer: 120–154. doi: 10.1002/9780470774540.ch6.
Anstey J, Cherbuin N, Budge M, Young, J. (2011). Body mass index in midlife and late-life as a risk factor for dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. 10: 426–437. doi: 10.1111/j.1467789X.2010.00825.x.
Arfines P, Luglio F, Kusumawardani N. (2020). Prevalence and Lifestyle Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity Among Indonesian Adolescents: An Analysis of Global School-Based Health Survey 2007 and 2015. Atlantis Press. doi: 10.2991/ahsr.k.200215.098.
Aryeetey R, Lartey A, Marquis S, Nti H, Colecraft E, Brown P. (2017). Prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in urban Ghana. BMC Obes. 4(38): 1–8. doi: 10.1186/s40608-017-0174-0.
Baniissa W, Radwan H, Rossiter R, Fakhry R, Hasan S, Macridis S, et al. (2020). Prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity among school aged adolescents in the United Arab Emirates : a cross-sectional study of private and public schools. BMJ open. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038667.
Bejarano G, Brayton P, Ranjit N, Hoelscher M, Brown D. (2022). Weight status and meeting the physical activity, sleep, and screen ‑ time guidelines among Texas children: results from a population based, cross sectional analysis. BMC Paediatr Open. doi: 10.11-86/s12887-022-03488-8.
Besa C, Mulenga D, Babaniyi O. (2013). Overweight and Obesity in Kaoma and Kasama Rural Districts of Zambia: Prevalence and Correlates in 2008-2009 Population Based Surveys. J. Hypertens. 02(01): 2–7. doi: 10.4172/2167-1095.1000110.
Bogale A, Zewale A. (2019). Determinant factors of overweight / obesity among federal ministry civil servants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia:a call for sector‑wise occupational health program. BMC Res Notes. 12 (449): 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4489-4.
CDC (2022). Alcohol Use and Your Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Dagne S, Gelaw A, Abebe Z, Wassie M. (2019). Factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in northeast Ethiopia: a cross‑sectional study. Dovepress. 12: 391–399.
Dai H, Alsalhe A, Chalghaf N, Ricc M, Bragazzi L, Wu J. (2020). The global burden of disease attributable to high body mass index in 195 countries and territories, 1990 – 2017: An analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study. PLoS Med. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003198
Darebo T, Mesfin A, Gebremedhin S. (2019). Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in Hawassa city, southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. BMC Obes. 6(8): 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s40608-019-0227-7.
Fikre A, Shehmolo M, Id B, Oumer B. (2022). Magnitude and risks of overweight/obesity among adults in Welkite town, Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0275014.
Hruby A, Hu FB (2016). The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture. Pharmacoeconomics. 33(7): 673–689. doi: 10.1007/s40273-014-0243-x.
IARD. (2013). Drinking and Obesity. International Alliance for Responsible Drinking.
JBI. (2017). Checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies. Joanna Briggs Institute
Kabwama N, Kirunda B, Mutungi G, Wesonga R, Bahendeka K, Guwatudde D. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of abdominal obesity among adults in Uganda: findings from a national cross-sectional, population based survey 2014. BMC obesity. 5(40): 1–9. doi: 10.1186/s40608-018-0217-1.
Keetile M, Navaneetham K, Letamo G, Bainame K, Rakgoasi D, Gabaitiri L, Masupe T, et al. (2019). Socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of overweight/obesity among adults in Botswana: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029570
Kemenkes RI. (2014). Pedoman gizi seimbang. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia
Kemenkes RI. (2015). Pedoman Umum Pengendalian Obesitas. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia
Ladhani M, Craig C, Irving M, Clayton A, Wong G. (2017). Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 32(3): 439–449. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfw075.
Mawaw P, Yav T, Mukuku O, Kakisingi C, Kakoma B, Luboya N. (2017). A cross-sectional study on obesity and related risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubum-bashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. AFENET. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.28.157.13762.
Mayulu N. (2013). Hubungan Antara Aktivitas Fisik Dengan Obesitas Pada Wanita Usia Subur Peserta Jamkesmas di Puskesmas Wawonasa Keca-matan Singkil Manado. eBiomedik. 1: 1040–1046. doi: 10.35790/ebm.v1i2.3255
Mekonnen T, Animaw W, Seyum Y. (2018). Overweight / obesity among adults in North-Western Ethiopia: a community-based cross sectional study. BMC. 78(18): 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s13690-018-0262-8.
Mekonnen T, Tariku A, Abebe M (2018). Overweight/Obesity among school aged children in Bahir Dar City: cross sectional study. BMC. 44(17): 1–8. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0452-6.
Menon S, Philipneri A, Ratnasingham S, Manson H (2019). The integrated role of multiple healthy weight behaviours on overweight and obesity among adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pub Health. 19(1157): 1–12. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7007-7.
Mogre V, Nyaba R, Aleyira S, & Sam B. (2015). Demographic, dietary and physical activity predictors of general and abdominal obesity among university students: a cross-sectional study. SpringerPlus, doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-0999-2
Rudatsikira E, Muula S, Mulenga D, Siziya S. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of obesity among Lusaka residents, Zambia: a population-based survey. BMC. 5(14): 1–6.
Sheikh P, Smith G, & Hasan R. (2022). Determinants of Double Burden of Malnutrition Among School Children and Adolescents in Urban Dhaka: A MultiLevel Analyses. Front Public Health. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.926571
Simo P, Agbor N, Temgoua Z, Cedric L, Fozeu F, Bonghaseh T, et al. (2021). Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in selected health areas in a rural health district in Cameroon: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 21(475): 1–12. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10403-w.
Sudikno, Herdayati M, Besral (2010). Hubungan Aktifitas Fisik Dengan Kejadian Obesitas Pada Orang Dewasa di Indonesia. Analisis Data Riskesdas 2007.
Tateyama Y, Techasrivichien T, Musumari M, Suguimoto P, Zulu R, Macwan M, et al. (2018). Obesity matters but is not perceived: A cross-sectional study on cardiovascular disease risk factors among a population-based probability sample in rural Zambia. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208176.
Tekalegn Y, Solomon D, Sahiledengle B, Assefa T, Bekele K, Zenbaba D, et al. (2022). Prevalence of central obesity and its associated risk factors among adults in Southeast Ethiopia: A community-based cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265107.
HHS. (2018). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 2nd edition. Department of Health and Human Services.
WHO. (2021). Obesity and Overweight. World Health Organization.
WHO. (2022). The Global Health Observatory: Nutrition-Body Mass Index. World Health Organization.
WOF. (2022a). Childhood Obesity. World Obesity Federation.
WOF. (2022). World Obesity Atlas 2022. March. World Obesity Federation.
Zubery D, Kimiywe J, Martin D. (2021). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, and Its Associated Factors Among Health-care Workers, Teachers, and Bankers in Arusha City, Tanzania. Dovepress. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S283595.