Effect of Social Support and Self Efficacy on Drug Taking Adherence in Hypertensive Patients: A Meta-Analysis


  • Sukma Sukma Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Didik Tamtomo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Argyo Demartoto Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret




Background: Hypertension is a condition that causes a person to experience a drastic rise in blood pressure. Social support and self-efficacy are needed to improve skills, self-confidence and a sense of security for patients to be more compliant with taking medication. This study aimed to analyze the effect of social support and self-efficacy on medication adherence in hypertensive patients.
Subjects and Method: This study is a meta-analysis using PICO, namely population: hypertensive patients; Intervention: good social support, good self-efficacy; Comparison: low social support, low self-efficacy; Result: medication adherence. The articles used in this study were obtained from two databases, namely PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords in the article search “social cognitive theory (SCT)” AND “self efficacy“ AND ”social support “AND” hypertension” AND “medication adhe-rence”, cross-sectional. The included article is full English with a cross-sectional study design for 2012–2022 and reports the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) in multivariate analysis. Selection of articles using the PRISMA flowchart. Article analysis using the Review Manager 5.3 application.
Results: 7 articles with a cross-sectional study involving 708 people with hypertension from 2 conti-nents namely Asia and Africa for systematic review and meta-analysis. The data collected showed that hypertensive patients with strong social support were twice as likely to adhere to medication as hypertensive patients with weak social support (aOR= 2.16; 95%CI= 1.82 to 2.57; p <0.001), Hyper-tensive patients with self-efficacy Those who are strong are more likely to adhere to medication twice than hypertensive patients with weak self-efficacy (aOR= 2.11; 95% CI = 1.27 to 3.52; p <0.004).
Conclusion: Social support and self-efficacy improve medication adherence in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: social support, self-efficacy, social cognitive theory, hypertension, medication adherence

Sukma. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia. Email: sukmadenny1402@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281254428800.


Abbas H, Kurdi M, Vries DF, van Onzenoort VHAW, Driessen JHM, Watfa M, Karam R (2020). Factors associated with antihypertensive medication non-adherence: a cross-sectional study among lebanese hypertensive adults. Patient Prefer Adherence. 14: 663–673. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S238751.

Abidin AZ (2019). Analysis of Compliance with Repairs of Hypertension Reviewed from Health Care Function and Implementation of Family Health Information Package. JQPH. 3(1). 101–111. doi: 10.30994/jqph.v3i1.53.

Ademe S, Aga F, Gela D. Hypertension self-care practice and associated factors among patients in public health facilities of Dessie town. BMC Health Serv Res .19(1): 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s12-913-019-3880-0.

Andualem A, Habtam G, Damtie Y. Adherence to Lifestyle Modifications and Associated Factors Among Adult Hypertensive Patients Attending Chronic Follow-Up Units of Dessie Referral Hospital. Integr. Blood Press. Control. 13:45-156. doi:10.2147/IBPC.S275575.

Andualem A, Liknaw T, Edmealem A, Gedefaw M. Adherence to antihypertensive medications among adult hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of Dessie Referral Hospital. Medicine. 100(31). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000026818.

Br Siahaan RH, Utomo W, Herlina H. (2022). Relationship between Family Support and Self-Efficacy with Hyper-tension Elderly Motivation in Con-trolling Blood Pressure. HNHS. 5(1): 43–53. doi: 10.14710/hnhs.5.1.2022.4353.

CEBM (2014). Critical Appraisal of a Cross-Sectional Study (Survey) Appraisal questions.

Chowdhury MAB, Uddin MJ, Haque MR, Ibrahimou B (2016). Hypertension among adults in Bangladesh: Evidence from a national cross-sectional survey. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 16(1): 1–10. doi:10.1186/s12872-016-0197-3.

Ding W, Li T, Su Q, Yuan M, Lin A (2018). Integrating factors associated with hypertensive patients’ self-management using structural equation modeling: A cross-sectional study in Guangdong, China. Patient Prefer Adherence. 12: 2169–2178. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S1803-14.

Elder K, Ramamonjiarivelo Z, Wiltshire J, Piper C, Horn WS, Gilbert KL, Hullett, S, et al. (2012). Trust, medication adherence, and hypertension control in Southern African American men. Am J Public Health. 102(12): 2242–2245.doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300777.

Gelaw S, Yenit MK, Nigatu SG (2021). Self-Care Practice and Associated Factors among Hypertensive Patients in Debre Tabor Referral Hospital. Int. J. Hypertens. 357(9). doi: 10.1155/2021/3570050

Hanum S, Putri NR, Marlinda M, Yasir Y (2019). Hubungan Antara Penge-tahuan, Motivasi, Dan Dukungan Keluarga Dengan Kepatuhan Minum Obat Pada Penderita Hipertensi Di Puskesmas Peukan Bada Kabupaten Aceh Besar. J Integr. 10(1): 30–35. doi: 10.32695/JKT.V10I1.28.

Hussen FM, Adem HA, Roba HS, Mengistie B, Assefa N. Self-care practice and associated factors among hypertensive patients in public health facilities in Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia. AGE Open Med. 8(1-9). doi: 10.1177/2050312120974145.

Hu HH, Li G, Arao T (2015). The association of family social support, depression, anxiety and self-efficacy with specific hypertension self-care behaviours in Chinese local community. J Hum Hypertens. 29(3): 198–203. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2014.58.

Khadoura K, Shakibazadeh E, Mansournia MA, Aljeesh Y, Fotouhi A. Determining the Prevalence of and the Factors Associated with Antihypertensive Me-dication Non-Adherence in the Gaza Strip. Korean J Fam Med. 42(2): 150-158. doi: 10.4082/kjfm.19.0081.

Kendu YM, Qodir A, Apryanto F (2021). Hubungan Self-Efficacy Dengan Ting-kat Kepatuhan Minum Obat. MHJNS. 2: 13–21. doi:10.33475/mhjns.v1i2.26.

Morrison VL, Holmes EAF, Parveen S, Plumpton CO, Clyne W, Geest DS, Dobbels F, et. al (2015). Predictors of self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medicines: A multination-nal, cross-sectionalsurvey. V. Health. 18(2): 206–216. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.12.013.

Nade MS, Rantung J (2020). Family Support and Compliance in Taking Medication Against the Elderly with Hypertension in the Work Area of Parongpong Health Center in West Bandung Regency. Nurs Sci J.4(1): 1–7. ISSN: 2621-4091.

Nuratiqa N, Risnah R, Hafid MA, Paharani, A, Irwan M (2020). Faktor Yang Ber-hubungan Dengan Kepatuhan Minum Obat Anti Hipertensi. Bimiki. 8(1).

Nyantakyi RA, Okyere P, Boateng EA, Okyere I, Osei FA, Odoom SF, Frank Micah F, Attakorah J (2020). Factors influencing knowledge levels among hypertensive patients receiving treatment at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional study. Afr J Curr Med Res. 4(1).

Rif'ati MI, Arumsari A, Fajriani N, Magh-firoh VS, Abidi AF, Chusairi A, Hadi C (2018). Konsep Dukungan Sosial dalam Keluarga. In USIPP. 118-12.

Thangsuk P, Pinyopornpanish K, Jiraporn-charoen W, Buawangpong N, Angku-rawaranon C (2021). Is the association between herbal use and blood-pressure control mediated by medication adherence? A cross-sectional study in primary care. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 18(24). doi: 10.3390/ijerph182412916.

Titebu A, Mengistu A, Bulto LN. Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications and associated factors for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa. 11(4): 47-52. ISSN 1658-3639.

Turan GB, Aksoy M, Ciftci B (2019). Effect of social support on the treatment adherence of hypertension patients. J. Vasc Nurs. 37(1): 46–51. doi: 10.1016/j.jvn.2018.10.005.2

Uchmanowicz B, Chudiak A, Uchmanowicz, I, Rosinczuk J, Froelicher ES (2018). Factors influencing adherence to treatment in older adults with hypertension. Clin Interv Aging. 13: 2425–


Utami RS, Raudatussalamah R (2017). Relationship between Family Social Support and Compliance with Treatment for Hypertension Patients at the Tualang Health Center. JPSI. 12(2). doi:10.20473/jpk.V8.I2.2020.146-15-3.

WHO (2021). Hypertension. World Health Organization.

Yassine M, Hajje AA, Awada S, Rachidi S, Zein S, Bawab W, Bou Zeid BM, Hajj EM, Salameh P. (2016). Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hy-pertensive patients. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 6(3): 157–167. doi: 10.1016/j.jegh.2015.07.002.




How to Cite

Sukma, S., Tamtomo, D., & Demartoto, A. (2023). Effect of Social Support and Self Efficacy on Drug Taking Adherence in Hypertensive Patients: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 8(1), 138–149. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.01.12




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>