Factors Associated with Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Nurses Working in COVID-19 Isolation Centres, Lagos, Nigeria


  • Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed Department of Health, Safety and Environment Studies, Training and Research Institute, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Academy, Karu, Nigeria
  • Wasiu Adebowale Afolabi School of Post Basic Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Nigeria
  • Yisa Abiodun Bilawu College of Nursing, Ilaro, Nigeria
  • Kabiru Zubairu Department of International Relations, Air Force Institute of Technology (Air Force Base) Mando Road, Nigeria




Background: Nurses are at increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to response of the body and mind to a threatening working environment as they care for COVID-19 patients in isolation centres. This study determined the prevalence of PTSD and examined the associated factors among nurses working in COVID-19 isolation centres.Subjects dan Method: The study was a cross-sectional design. Purposive method was used to select two isolation centres, while 75 nurses who participated in the study were selected using total enumeration sampling technique. A structured questionnaire with validity and reliability established was used to collect data which were screened, collated and analyzed with SPSS 27. The Fisher’s Exact Test and Multivariate logistic regressions were the inferential statistics used to test the level of significant at p<0.050 and 95% confidence interval. The dependent variable of this study is posttraumatic stress disorder while the independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, psychological and working conditions factors.Results: The mean age of the participants was (Mean=37.60; SD=10.20). Percentage of nurses having mild to severe PTSD was 27.8%. Duration stayed in COVID-19 isolation centres by nurses was significantly associated with the PTSD (p=0.003). The age, gender, marital status, and education level of the nurses were not statistically significant associated with the PTSD (p>0.05). Nurses who felt their life was under threat by working in COVID-19 isolation centres were 4.2 times more likely to develop PTSD compared to nurses who did not (OR=4.22, 95% CI=3.57 to 12.60, p=0.001).Conclusion: Nurses suffered PTSD due to psychological and physical exhaustion during the care of COVID-19 patients in isolation centres. Support program is recommended for the affected nurses to improve their quality of life. Keywords: COVID-19 isolation centres, nurses, PTSD, prevalence Correspondence: Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed. Department of Health, Safety and Environment Studies, Training and Research Institute, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, Academy, Karu, Abuja, Nigeria. Email: tajrash2005@gmail.com. Mobile: +2348038007373.

Author Biography

Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed, Department of Health, Safety and Environment Studies, Training and Research Institute, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Academy, Karu, Nigeria

Lecturer, Department of Health, Safety & Environment (HSE) Studies


APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA.

Azim D, Kumar S, Nasim S, Arif TB, Nan-jiani D (2020). COVID-19 as a psychological contagion: A new Pandora's box to close? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 41(8): 989–990. doi: 10.1017/ice.2020.127.

Carmassi C, Cerveri G, Bui E, Gesi C, Dell’Osso L (2020). Defining effective strategies to prevent post-traumatic stress in healthcare emergency workers facing the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. CNS Spectrums. 1-2. doi: 10.1017/S1092852920-001637.

Chen Y, Zhou H, Zhou Y, Zhou F (2020). Prevalence of self-reported depression and anxiety among pediatric medical staff members during the COVID-19 outbreak in Guiyang, China. Psychiatry Res, 288. 113005. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113005.

Cloitre M, Shevlin M, Brewin CR, Bisson JI, Roberts NP, Maercker A, Hyland P (2018). The International Trauma Questionnaire: development of a self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 138(6): 536–546. doi: 10.1111/acps.12956.

d'Ettorre G, Ceccarelli G, Santinelli L, Vassalini P, Innocenti GP, Alessandri, F, Tarsitani L (2021). Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Healthcare Workers Dealing with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 18(2): 601-607. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020601.

Dutheil F, Mondillon L, Navel V (2020). PTSD as the second tsunami of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Psychol Med. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720001336.

Ford M (2021). Covid-19: New findings point to widespread trauma among nurses. Nursing Times, 13 January, 2021. Available at: https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/workforce/covid-19 -new-findings-point-to-widespread-trau ma-among-nurses-13-01-2021/.

Hardler N (2021). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder during COVID-19. Department of Psychiatric, University of Michigan Medical School. Retrieved from https://medicine.umich.edu/dept/psychiatry/michigan-psychiatry-resources-covid-19.

Heir T, Bonsaksen T, Grimholt T, Ekeberg O, Skogstad L, Lerdal A, Schou-Bredal I (2019). Serious life events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Norwegian population. BJPsych Open. 5 (5). doi: 10.1192/bjo.2019.62.

ICN (2021). The COVID-19 Effect: World’s nurses facing mass trauma, an immediate danger to the profession and future of our health systems. Press Information. Geneva, Switzerland.

Lazarus RS and Folkman S (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. Eur J Pers. 1: 141–169.

Lazarus RS (1966). Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Li Y, Scherer N, Felix L, Kuper H (2021). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 16(3). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246454.

Liu CY, Yang YZ, Zhang XM, Xu X, Dou QL, Zhang WW, Cheng A (2020). The prevalence and influencing factors in anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiol Infect. 148. doi: 10.1017/S0950268820001107.

Luceño-Moreno L, Talavera-Velasco B, García-Albuerne Y, Martín-García J (2020). Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Levels of Resilience and Burnout in Spanish Health Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Environ Res. 17(15). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155514.

Marthoenis M, Fathiariani L, Nassimbwa J (2021). Investigating the burden of mental distress among nurses at a provincial COVID-19 referral hospital in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nurs. 20: 76-85. doi: 10.1186/s12912-021-00596-1.

McLaughlin KA, Koenen KC, Friedman MJ, Ruscio AM, Karam E G, Shahly V, Kessler RC (2015). Subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder in the world health organization world mental health surveys. Biol Psychiatry. 77(4): 375–384. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.03.028.

Moon D J, Han MA, Park J (2021). Post-traumatic Stress and Related Factors Among Hospital Nurses during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Korea. Psychiatry Quarterly. doi: 10.1007/s11126-021-09915-w.

Mukhtar S (2020). Mental Health and Psychosocial Aspects of Coronavirus Outbreak in Pakistan: Psychological Intervention for Public Mental Health Crisis. Asian J Psychiatry. 51. 102069. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102069.

Perna G, Caldirola D (2021). COVID-19 and panic disorder: clinical considerations for the most physical of mental disorders. Braz J Psychiatry. 43: 110-111. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446- 2020-1235.

Si MY, Su XY, Jiang Y, Wang WJ, Gu XF, Ma L, Qiao YL (2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical care workers in China. Infect Dis Poverty. 9(1): 113. doi: 10.1186/s40249-020-00724-0.

Tan B, Chew N, Lee G, Jing M, Goh Y, Yeo L, Sharma VK (2020). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in Singapore Ann Intern Med. 173(4): 317–320. doi: 10.7326/M20-1083.

WHO (2020). Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-2019), Interim Guidance, Switzerland, Geneva. World Health Organization.

WHO (2016). Healthy Workers, Healthy Future, Why Investing in healthy workers is fundamental to national development. WPR/2016/DNH/016. World Health Organization.

Wong AH, Pacella-LaBarbara ML, Ray JM, Ranney ML, Chang BP (2020). Healing the healer: Protecting emergency health care workers' mental health during COVID-19. Ann Emerg Med. 76(4): 379–384. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.04.041.

Xiao S, Luo D, Xiao Y (2020). Survivor of COVID-19 are at high risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Global Health Research and Policy. BMC. 5(29): 1-3. doi: 10.1186/s41256-020-00155-2.

Zhu J, Sun L, Zhang L, Wang H, Fan A, Yang B, Li W et al. (2020). Prevalence and influencing factors of anxiety and depression symptoms in the first-line medical staff fighting against COVID-19 in Gansu. Front Psychiatry. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00386.




How to Cite

Rasheed, T. O., Afolabi, W. A., Bilawu, Y. A., & Zubairu, K. (2023). Factors Associated with Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Nurses Working in COVID-19 Isolation Centres, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 8(2), 233–245. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2023.08.02.08