A Meta-Analysis of Correlations between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Smoking, and Severity of COVID-19


  • Gigih Cita Pambudi Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Setyo Sri Rahardjo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Sumardiyono Sumardiyono Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease that can progress to severe hypoxemia with cases reaching more than 235 million cases worldwide until November 2021. The association with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and smoking habits are both very common globally and may increase the severity of COVID-19. However, it has not been elucidated. Given the gaps in evidence and the increasing prevalence of COVID-19, this study aimed to examine the influence of COPD and smoking habits on the severity of COVID-19 patients.

Subjects and Method: This meta-analysis study was conducted with PICO as follows: Popula


Chatreewatanakul B, Othaganont P, Hick-man RL (2021). Early symptom recognition and symptom management among exacerbation COPD patients: A qualitative study. Appl Nurs Res. 63: 151522. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2021.151522.


Espinosa OA, Zanetti ADS, Antunes EF, Longhi FG, Matos TAD, Battaglini PF (2020). Prevalence of comorbidities in patients and mortality cases affected by SARS-CoV2: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 62: 1-13. doi: 10.1590/S16789946202062043.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, et al. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 382 (18): 1708-1720. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.

Guan WJ, Liang WH, Zhao Y, Liang HR, Chen ZS, Li YM, Liu XQ, et al. (2020). Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J. 55(5): 2000547. doi: 10.11-83/13993003.005472020.

Lee SC, Son KJ, Han CH, Park SC, Jung JY (2021). Impact of COPD on COVID-19 prognosis: A nationwide populartion-based study in South Korea. Scientific Reports. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-83226-9.

Lippi G, Henry BM (2020). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with severe coronavirus dese-ase 19 (COVID-19). Respir Med. 167: 105941. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.105941.

Murti, B. (2018). Prinsip dan metode riset epidemiologi (5th ed.) (Principles and methods of epidemiological research (5th ed.)). Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Zhao Q, Meng M, Kumar R, Wu Y, Huang J, Lian N, Deng Y, et al. (2020). The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of Covid 19: A systemic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 92(10): 1915-1921. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25889.

WHO (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Dashboard at WHO. Available at: https://covid-19.who.int/. Accessed in 2-12-21.




How to Cite

Pambudi, G. C., Rahardjo, S. S., & Sumardiyono, S. (2021). A Meta-Analysis of Correlations between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Smoking, and Severity of COVID-19. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 6(4), 415–425. Retrieved from https://jepublichealth.com/index.php/jepublichealth/article/view/437




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>