Meta-Analysis the Effect of Residence on the Risk of Anxiety and Depression in General Population during COVID-19 Pandemic


  • Riyesti Hero Fresna Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Hanung Prasetya Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health Surakarta


Background: The area of residence is one aspect that affects a person's mental health, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The difference in the area of residence determines the frequency of exposure to pandemic information in the form of valid invalid information which is increasingly massive, so that between urban and rural areas there can be a potential risk of depression and anxiety. This study aimed to analyze the effect of residence on the risk of anxiety and depression in the population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Subjects and Method: The meta-analysis was performed by searching for articles from Google Scholar, Pubmed, and ScienceDiret. The keywords used in the article search were


Arlington VA (2013). Diagnostic and sta-tistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. doi: 10.1016/B0-12-657410-3/00457-8.

Berchialla P, Chiffi D, Valente G, Voutilainen A (2021). The power of meta-analysis: a challenge for evidence-based medicine. Eur J Philos Sci. 11(1): 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s13194-020-00321-w.

Brodin P (2020). Why is COVID-19 so mild in children?. Acta Paediatrica Int J Pediatr. 109(6): 1082-1083. doi: 10.1-111/apa.15271.

Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, Zheng J (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res. 287: 112934. 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934.

Chew NWS, Lee GKH, Tan BYQ, Jing M, Goh Y, Ngiam NJH, Sharma VK (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav. Immun. 88(April): 559-565. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.049.

Choi DH, Yoo W, Noh GY, Park K (2017). The impact of social media on risk perceptions during the MERS outbreak in South Korea. Comput. Hum. Behav. 72: 422-431. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.004.

Clemente SVJ, Navarro JE, Jimenez M, Hormeno HA, Martinez GMB, Benitez AJC, Tornero AJF (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic in public mental health: An extensive narrative review. Sustainability (Switzerland). 13(6). doi: 10.3390/su13063221.

Fidiansjah (2020). Pandemi dan mental health: meringkas isu kesehatan mental selama satu tahun di era pandemi (pandemic and mental health: summarizing mental health issues for one year in the pandemic era). Jurnal Kesehatan. 5(3): 12.

Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, Dai J (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE. 15(4) (December 2019), 1

Khan AS, Debnath S, Islam S, Zaman S, Ambia NE, Barshan AD, Hossain MS, et al. (2021). Mental health of young people amidst COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Heliyon. 7(6). doi: 10.1016/J.HELIYON.2021.E07173.

Kurniawati O, Prasetya H, Murti B (2021). Meta-analysis the effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus on covid-19 mortality. J Epidemiol Public Health. 06(02): 177

Liang L, Ren H, Cao R, Hu Y, Qin Z, Li C (2020). The Effect of COVID-19 on youth mental health. Psychiatr Q. (1163): 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s11126-020-09744-3.

Mekonen EG, Workneh BS, Ali MS, Mulu-neh NY (2021). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on graduating class students at the university of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 14: 109-122. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S30-0262.

Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan metode riset epidemiologi (epidemiological research principles and methods). Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Ma-syarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret, 5.

Okan O, Bollweg TM, Berens E, Hurrel-mann K, Bauer U, Schae D (2020). Coronavirus-related health literacy: a cross-sectional study in adults during the COVID-19 infodemic in Germany. Int. J. Environ. 17(15): 5503. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155503.

Oxford (2020). Correspondence not all world leaders use twitter in response to the covid-19 pandemic : impact of the way of angela merkel on psycho-logical distress, behaviour and risk perception. Journal of public health (Oxford, England). 1-3.

Ozma MA, Maroufi P, Khodadadi E, Kose S, Esposito I, Ganbarov K, Kafil HS, et al. (2020). Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) during the outbreak period. Infez Med. 28(2): 153-165.

Pool J, Fatehi F, Akhlaghpour S (2021). Infodemic, misinformation and disinformation in pandemics: scientific landscape and the road ahead for public health informatics research. Online J. Public Health Inform. 281: 764-768. doi: 10.3233/SHTI210278.

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) out-break. J Autoimmun. 109:102433. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433.

Shi L, Lu Z-A, Que JY, Huang X-L, Liu L, Ran M-S, Gong Y-M, et al. (2020). Prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms among the general population in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open. 3(7):

e2014053. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14053.

Stats NZ (2021). Functional urban areas

Waqas M, Hania A, Hongbo L (2020). Psy-chological predictors of anxious responses to the covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from pakistan. Psychiatry Investig. 17(11): 1096-1104. doi: 10.30773/pi.2020.0167.

Willyard KA, Branch SAE (2021). Rural-urban differences in community resi-lience to COVID-19 in the United States Abstract. Paper Knowledge. Toward a Media History of Documents. 1-13.

Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Nasri F, Lui LMW, Gill H, Phan L (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic re-view. J Affect Disord. 277: 55-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001.

Zhang J, Zhu L, Li S, Huang J, Ye Z, Wei Q, Du C (2021). Rural-urban disparities in knowledge, behaviors, and mental health during COVID-19 pandemic: A community-based cross-sectional survey. Medicine (Baltimore). 100 (13): e25207. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025207.




How to Cite

Fresna, R. H., Murti, B., & Prasetya, H. (2021). Meta-Analysis the Effect of Residence on the Risk of Anxiety and Depression in General Population during COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 6(3), 381–391. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >>