Meta Analysis the Effect of Body Mass Index on the Flat Foot Incidence


  • Philipus Prihantiko Kurniagung Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Dono Indarto Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Setyo Sri Rahardjo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders in the form of flat foot, back pain and knee pain are often found in people who are obese. Flat foot is a musculoletal disorder characterized by a decrease or decrease in the height of the medial arch as a parameter, especially those that can be observed and measured in height. This study aims to estimate the average size of the effect of BMI on the risk of flat foot.

Subjects and Method: Meta-analysis study and systematic reviews were applied to this study using the electronic database Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Springer Link. Keywords to search for articles are as follows: "flat foot", "adult flat foot", "Flexible Flat Foot", "Body Mass Index", "Pediatric flat foot", "pes planus", "obesity", "overweight", "Ado


Abdel-Fattah MM, Hassanin MM, Felem-bane FA, Nassaane MT (2006). Flat foot among Saudi Arabian army re-cruits: prevalence and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J. 12(1-2):211-7.

Abich Y, Mihiret T, Yihunie Akalu, Gashaw M, Janakiraman B (2020). Flatfoot and associated factors among Ethio-pian school children aged 11 to 15 years: A school-based study. PLOS ONE, 15(8), doi: 10.1371/journal.po-ne.0238001.

Alghadir AH, Gabr SA, Rizk AA (2019). Plasmatic adipocyte biomarkers and foot pain associated with flatfoot in schoolchildren with obesity. Rev Assoc Med Bras, 65(8): 1061

Asencio JMM, Medina-Alc

Assoc. 109(1): 30

Butterworth PA, Landorf KB, Smith SE, Menz HB (2012). The association between bodymassindex and mus-culoskeletal foot disorders: a syste-matic review. Obes Rev. 13(7): 630


Chang Y, Hung W, Wu H, Chiu Y, Hsu H (2010). Measurements of foot arch in standing, level walking, vertical jump and sprint start. Int Journal of Sport and Exercise Science, (2)2, 31-38.

Chen KC, Yeh CJ, Tung L, Yang JF, Yang SF, Wang CH (2010). Relevant factors influencing flatfoot in preschool-aged children. Eur. J Pediatr. 170(7): 931

Dare DM, Dodwell ER (2014). Pediatric flatfoot. Curr Opin Pediatr, 26(1): 93

EzemaCI, AbaraoguUO, Okafor GO (2014). Flat foot and associated factors among primary school children: A cross-sectional study. Hong Kong Physiother J, 32(1), 13

Fernandez SP, Martin CG, Tajes FA, Pilla-do, TS, Diaz SP, Garcia SP, Bestilleiro RS, Barreiro VB (2017). Flat foot in a random population and its impact on quality of life and functionality.J clin diagn res. 11(4): doi:10.7860/jcdr/20-17/24362.9697.

Houglum PA, Bertoti DB (2012). Brun-nstrom

Machluf Y, Fink D, Farkash R, Rotkopf R, Pirogovsky A, Tal O, Chaiter Y (2016). Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel. Medicine. 95(12). doi:10.1097/md.00-00000000003022.

Maggio AB, Martin XE, Saunders Gasser C, Gal-Duding C, Beghetti M, Farpour-Lambert NJ, Chamay-Weber C (2014). Medical and non-medical complications among children and adolescents with excessive body weight. BMC Pediatrics, 14(1). doi:10.-1186/1471-2431-14-232.

Park SY, Bang HS, Park DJ (2018). Poten-tial for foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults. J Exerc Rehabil, 14(3), 497

Park SY, Park DJ (2019). Comparison of foot structure, function, plantar pres-sure and balance ability according to the body mass index of young adults. Osong Public Health Res Perspect, 10(2): 102

Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M (2006). Prevalence of Flat Foot in Preschool-Aged Children. Pediatrics, 118(2): 634

Pourghasem M, Kamali N, Farsi M, Soltan-pour N (2016). Prevalence of flat foot among school students and its rela-tionship with BMI. Acta Orthop Trau-matol Turc, 50(5): 554

Sadeghi-Demneh E, Melvin JMA, Mickle K (2018). Prevalence of pathological flatfoot in school-age children. JFoot. (37), 38

Shibuya N, Kitterman RT, LaFontaine J, Jupiter DC (2014). Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg. 53(2): 168

Shree S, Revathi S, Thiyagarajan A, Kumar D (2018). Does Obesity Cause Flat Foot?. Obes Ther 2(1).

Tenenbaum S, Hershkovich O,Gordon B, Bruck N, Thein R, Derazne E, Afek A (2013). Flexible pes planus in adoles-cents. Foot Ankle Int, 34(6): 811

Vergara AE, Serrano SRF, Correa PJR, Molano AC, Guevara OA (2012). Pre-valence of flatfoot in school between 3 and 10 years. Study of two different populations geographically and so-cially. Colomb Med. 141

Witari NPD, Cahyawati PN, Lestarini A, (2018). Prevalence flatfoot in primary school, IOP Conf Ser Mater Scieng. doi:10.1088/1757899x/434/1/434.




How to Cite

Kurniagung, P. P., Indarto, D., & Rahardjo, S. S. (2020). Meta Analysis the Effect of Body Mass Index on the Flat Foot Incidence. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 5(3), 329–338. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>