Meta Analysis: The Effect of Age and Gender on Face Mask Use during COVID-19 Pandemic

Indah Adhitama Chrisnanda, Hanung Prasetya, Bhisma Murti


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a world health problem in early 2020. The first case of COVID-19 was found in Wuhan China, the use of masks is intended to control the transmission of the virus to others and as a preventive measure, namely by providing protection to users who do not infected with viral exposure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent of adherence to wearing masks in the elderly and women through a meta-analysis of the primary study which was carried out by the previous authors.

Subjects and Method: This study was a meta-analysis with the following PICO, PICO. Popula­tion: general population, intervention: age (older > 46) and gender (female), comparison: age (young 12 - 45 years) and gender (male), outcome: use of masks. The articles used in this study were obtained from three databases, namely Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct. With keywords such as: “mask and COVID-19 transmission”, “mask or COVID-19 transmission”. The articles included are full-text English with an observational study design from 2020 to 2022. Article selection was carried out using PRISMA flow diagram. Articles were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

Results: A total of 9 case studies from Europe, America and Asia were selected for systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that people over 46 years of age were 1.54 times more likely to use a mask than those under 45 years old (aOR= 1.54; 95% CI= 0.83 to 2.85; p= 0.170) and women were 1.12 times more likely to use a mask than men. -male (aOR= 1.12; 95% CI= 0.78 to 1.61; p= 0.550).

Conclusion: Older age and women are more likely to wear masks.

Keywords: wearing mask, gender, age, COVID-19

Correspondence: Indah Adhitama Chrisnanda. Master Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 081216121662.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2022), 07(04): 454-464

Full Text:



Atmojo JT, Iswahyuni S, Rejo, Catur S, Kiki P, Heni E, Ahmad RS, et al. (2020). Penggunaan masker dalam pencegahan dan penanganan COVID-19: rasionalitas, efektivitas dan isu terkini (The use of masks in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19: rationality, effectiveness and current issues). J. Health Res. 3(2): 84-95.

CDC (2020). Use of cloth face coverings to help slow the spread of COVID-19,

Cochrane (2014). RevMan 5.3 User Guide. The Cochrane Collaboration.

Health C (2020). N95 respirators and surgical masks (Face Masks). FDA.

Howard J (2020). Face mask against COVID-19: an evidence review. Br. Med. J 2.

Hu K (2020). The adverse skin reactions of health care workers using personal protective equipment for COVID-19. Medicine 2. (Diakses Pada Selasa, 22 Maret 2022 Pukul 10.00)

Kemenkes RI (2020). Pedoman pencegahan dan pengendalian coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Germas.

Kemenkes RI (2020). Situasi terkini perkembangan coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (The current situation of the development of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)). Germas.

Lai ACK, Poon CKM, Cheung ACT (2012). Effectiveness of facemasks to reduce exposure hazards for airborne infections among general populations’, J R Soc Interface. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2011.0537.

MacIntyre CR (2017). The efficacy of medical masks and respirators against respiratory infection in healthcare workers. Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses. doi: 10.1111/irv.12474.

Macleod MR, Tanriver-Ayder E, Hair K, Sena E (2019). Design of meta-analysis studies. In J. E. Barrett (Ed.), Good Research Practice in NonClinical Pharmacology and Biomedicine. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Open.

Mikolajewicz N, Komarova SV (2019). Meta-analytic methodology for basic research: a practical guide. Frontiers in Physiology. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00203.

Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan metode riset epidemiologi (5th ed) (Principles and methods of epidemiological research (5th ed)). Surakarta: Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Pro-gram Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Nugraha NA, Murti B, Prasetya H (2021). Meta analysis the effectiveness of acupuncture vs sham acupuncture on low back pain. 6: 336–346.

Offeddu V (2017). Effectiveness of masks and respirators against respiratory infections in healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch. Clin. Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix681.

Kurniawati, Prasetya H, Murti B (2020). Meta-Analysis the Effects of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on COVID-19 Mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health. 6 (2): 177-191.

Fresna RH, Murti B, Prasetya H (2021). Meta-Analysis the Effect of Residence on the Risk of Anxiety and Depression in General Population during COVID-19 Pandemic. J Epidemiol Community Health 6 (3): 381-391.

Munawaroh SM, Prasetya H, Murti B (2021). Meta-analysis the effect of asthma comorbidity on the mortality of COVID-19 patients. J Epidemiol Community Health. 256-267.


  • There are currently no refbacks.