Mortality Risk in COVID-19 Patients with HIV-Comorbidity: Meta-Analysis

Nindita Arum Veibiani, Bhisma Murti, Argyo Demartoto

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 or known as COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Comorbidities that are risk factors for COVID-19 death include hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, COPD, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), kidney failure, and cancer. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients with comorbid HIV, with a meta-analysis of the primary studies conducted by the previous authors.

Subjects and Method: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following PICO, population: COVID-19 patients. Intervention: HIV comorbidity. Comparison: without co-morbid HIV. Outcome: Mortality. The articles used in this study were obtained from four data­bases, namely PubMed, Google Scholar, Springerlink, and Science direct, using the search keys "HIV/AIDS" AND "Mortality" OR "death" AND "COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2. The included article is a full-text English language with a cohort study design from 2020 to 2021 and reports the adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) in a multivariate analysis. Article selection is done by using PRISMA flow diagram. Articles were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

Results: A total of 9 cohort studies involving 3,397,186 COVID-19 patients from America, Europe, and Africa were selected for a systematic review and meta-analysis. The data collected showed that COVID-19 patients with HIV comorbidities had a mortality risk of 3.30 times compared to COVID-19 patients without HIV comorbidities (aOR = 3.30; 95% CI = 2.87 to 3.81; p<0.001).

Conclusion: HIV increases mortality risk in COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: HIV, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, mortality

Correspondence: Nindita Arum Veibiani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: nindita.veibiani@gmail.com. Mobile: 085800­216969.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2022), 07(04): 431-440
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2022.07.04.02.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bhaskaran K, Rentsch CT, MacKenna B, Schultze A, Mehrkar A, Bates CJ, Eggo RM, et al. (2021). HIV infection and COVID-19 death: a population-based cohort analysis of UK primary care data and linked national death registrations within the OpenSAFELY platform. The lancet. HIV, 8(1): e24–e32. doi: 10.1016/S23523018(20)30305-2.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). About HIV/AIDS. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018a). HIV/AIDS. CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/default.html


Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y et al. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. LANCET. 395 (10223): 507-513. doi: 10.1016/S01406736(20)30211.


Danwang C, Noubiap JJ, Robert A. et al. (2022). Outcomes of patients with HIV and COVID-19 coinfection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Res Ther 19. 3. doi: 10.1186/s1298102100427-y.


Deeks JJ, Hinggins JP, Altman DG (2021). Chapter 10: Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. Cochrane Training. Retrieved from https://training.cochrane.org/handbook/current/chapter-10


Dessie ZG, Zewotir T (2021). Mortality related risk factors of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 studies and 423,117 patients. BMC infectious diseases. 21(1): 855. doi: 10.1186/s1287902106536-3.


Amo DJ, Polo R, Moreno S, Díaz A, Martínez E, Arribas JR, Jarrín I, Hernán MA, The Spanish HIV/ COVID-19 Collaboration (2020). Incidence and Severity of COVID-19 in HIV-Positive Persons Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 173(7): 536–541. doi: 10.7326/M20-3689.


Jassat W, Choen C, Tempia S, Masha M, Goldstein S, Kufa T, Murangandi P, et al. (2021). Risk factors for COVID-19 related in hospital mortality in a high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence setting in South Africa: a cohort study. doi: 10.1016/S23523018(21)00151-X.


Kouhpayeh H, Hossein A (2021). HIV infection and increased risk of COVID-19 mortality: A Meta-Analysis. Eur J Transl Myol 31 (4): 10107. doi: 10.4081/ejtm.2021.10107.


Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi (5th ed.) (Epidemiological Research Principles and Methods). Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.


NIH (2021). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines. NIH. Retrieved from: www.covid19-treatmentguidelines.nih.gov.


Venturas J, Zamparini J, Shaddock E, Stacey S, Murray L, Richards GA, Kalla I, et al. (2021). Comparison of outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with COVID-19. Int. J. Infect. 83(2): 217–227. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.05.020.


WHO (2007). Laboratory guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. Geneva: WHO Press.


WHO (2016). Consolidated guidelines on hiv prevention, diagnosis, treatmen, and care for key populations. Geneva: WHO Press


WHO (2020). COVID-19 Case definition. COVID-19: Surveillance, case investigation and epidemiological protocols. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Surveillance_Case_Definition-2020.2


WHO (2020a). COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update 22. World Health Organization. 1–3. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/docs/defaultsource/coronaviruse/situation-reports/weekly_epidemio-logical_up-date_22.pdf. WHO (2020b).

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.