Meta-Analysis Correlations between Hypertension, Smoking, and Severity Risk of COVID-19

Lisa Safaah Novia Larsiani, Didik Gunawan Tamtomo, Bhisma Murti

Abstract

Background: Based on the reported cases, 16.9% of COVID-19 patients were accompanied by comorbidities. Hypertension and smoking are suspected to be one of the pathological determinants that play a role in clinical predictors that are predicted to cause a worsening of the patient's condition during the treatment period. This study aimed to examine correlations between hypertension, smoking, and severity risk of COVID-19.

Subjects and Method: Meta-analysis was carried out using PRISMA flow diagrams. Article searches through journal databases include: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar. articles used in 2020-2022. The PICOs in this study were, Population: COVID-19 patients, Intervention: hypertension and smoking Comparation: not hypertension and not smoking, Outcome: severity of COVID-19. The keywords in this study were “hypertention” OR “high blood pressure” AND “severe COVID-19” OR “severty COVID-19” OR “patient COVID-19 outcome” “cigarette” OR “smoking” OR “current smoker” OR former smoker” AND “severe COVID-19” OR “severty COVID-19” OR “patient COVID-19 outcome” Inclusion criteria were articles used in full paper articles with a cohort design, relationship size used with aOR, intervention given the association of hypertension and smoking on the severity of COVID-19. Eligible articles were analyzed using the Revman 5.3 application.

Results: A meta-analysis of 12 cohort articles originating from Asia, America, Africa, Europe, concluded that COVID-19 treatment patients with hypertension had higher severity 1.82 times compared to those without hypertension (aOR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.18 to 2.79; p=0.006). Likewise, COVID-19 treatment patients with smoking habit had higher severity than those who do not smoke (aOR= 0.62; 95% CI= 0.14 to 2.65; p=0.520).

Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with hypertension have an increased risk of severity. COVID-19 patients with smoking lower risk of severity.

Keywords: Severe COVID-19, hypertention, cigarette.

Correspondence: Lisa Safaah Novia Larsiani. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl.Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: nl.lisasafaah@gmail.com Mobile: 089536503803.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2022), 07(03): 311-321
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2022.07.03.04.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bauer AZ, Gore R, Sama SR, Rosiello R, Garber L, Sundaresan D, McDonald A, et al. (2021). Hypertension, medications, and risk of severe COVID-19: A Massachusetts community-based observational study. J. Clin. Hyper-tens. 23(1): 21–27. doi: 10.1111/jch.14101.


Kemenkes (2020). Apa yang harus dilakukan masyarakat untuk cegah penularan COVID-19? (What should people do to prevent the spread of COVID-19?). Jakarta :16-24. Kementerian Kesehatan Indonesia.


Kemenkes (2020). Pedoman pencegahan dan pengendalian coronavirus disease (COVID 19) (Guidelines for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID 19)). Jakarta.HK.01.07/MENKES/413/2020, 10-12. Kementerian Kesehatan Indonesia.


Kemenkes (2020). WHO: 40% lebih perokok di seluruh dunia meninggal karena penyakit paru-paru (WHO: 40% more smokers worldwide die from lung disease). Http://www.P2ptm.Kemkes.Go.Id/. Retrieved at January 12, 2020.


Kurniawati O, Prasetya H, Murti B (2021). Meta-analysis the effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus on COVID-19 mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 6 (2): 177-191. doi: 10.26911/jepublic-health.2021.06.02.05


Lucar J, Wingler M, Cretella D, Ward L, Gomillia C, Chamberlain N (2021). Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Outcomes of Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19: Early Experience from an Academic Medical Center in Mississippi. South Med J. 114(3): 144–149. doi: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001222.


Mahabee-Gittens EM, Mendy A, Merianos AL (2021). Assessment of Severe COVID-19 Outcomes Using Measures of Smoking Status and Smoking Intensity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 18(17): 8939. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18178939


Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi (IV) (Epidemiological Research Principles and Methods (IV). Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.


Pititto A, Dualib M, Zajdenver L, Dantas R (2020). Severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: a meta ‑ analysis. 1–12. doi: 10.1186/s13098020-00586-4


Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel corona-virus-infected pneumonia in wuhan, China. JAMA. 323(11): 1061–1069. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585.


WHO (2020). Coronavirus dease (COVID –19). Https://Www.Who.Int/Health-Topics/Corona-virus#Tab=Tab1. Access, Desember 2020)


Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, Akdis CA, et al. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 75(7): 1730-1741. doi: 10.1111/all.14238.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.