Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Yoga Breathing Exercise (Pranayama) on Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

Khairunissa Khairunissa, Didik Gunawan Tamtomo, Hanung Prasetya


Background: Uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Non-pharmacological treatment has become an important part of hypertension management. Aerobic exercise and yoga breathing exercise (pranayama) are types of non-pharmacological treatment that have an effect on lowering blood pressure. This study aims to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and yoga breathing exercise (prana­yama) on blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Subjects and Method: The meta-analysis was carried out according to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles with randomized controlled trial study designs published in 2010-2020 were included using databases from PubMed, Science Direct, Research Gate, and Google Scholer. Based on the database, there were 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. This study involved 1564 subjects which were divided into, 953 aerobic exercise subjects and 611 yoga breathing exercise (pranayama) subjects. The analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.4 software.

Results: A total of 20 articles were reviewed in the meta-analysis. A total of 11 articles in the meta-analysis showed a statistically significant effect of the aerobic exercise intervention on reducing systolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.93; 95% CI= -1.33 to -0.53; p< 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (SMD= -0.56; 95% CI= -0.92 to -0.20; p= 0.002). A total of 9 articles conducted meta-analysis showed a statistically significant effect of yoga breathing exercise (pranayama) intervention on reducing systolic blood pressure (SMD= -1.68; 95% CI= -2.52 to -0.84; p< 0.001). There was a statistically insignificant effect on the decrease in diastolic blood pressure (SMD= -0.65; 95% CI= -1.54 to 0.25; p= 0.16).

Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and yoga breathing exercise (pranayama) can lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. 

Keywords: Aerobic exercise, yoga breathing exercise, pranayama, blood pressure, hyper­tension, meta analysis

Correspondence: Khairunissa. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: khairu­nissahabibi02@gmail.com Mobile: 081779226­622.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2021), 06(02)


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