Meta-Analysis: The Effectiveness of Zinc on Dhiarrea and Pneumonia in Children Under Five

Anastasia Dwi Anggraeni, Bhisma Murti, Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea and pneumonia together account for 29% of all child deaths globally, resulting in the deaths of more than two million children each year. Zinc deficiency is associated with decreased immunity and an increase in serious infectious diseases. Zinc deficiency is likely to be a major cause of increased mortality of malnourished infants in developing countries. Numerous studies have shown that zinc supplementation reduces the duration and severity of diarrhea. In addition, zinc administration can also prevent pneumo­nia, and is effective in recovering fever, short­ness of breath and respiratory rate. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of zinc on the incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia in children under five.

Subjects and Method: This research is a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted with PRISMA flow diagram. Article searches through journal databases include: PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Schoolar. The keywords used were (“Zinc” OR “Diarrhea”) AND (“Zinc” OR “Pneumonia”) AND “rando­mized controlled trial”. Inclusion criteria were full paper articles with Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) research methods, the relationship measure used was Mean SD and Odds Ratio, the intervention given was zinc, research subjects had an age range of 0-6 years. Eligible articles were analyzed using the Revman5.3 application.

Results: Meta-analysis of 14 articles showed that zinc administration reduced diarrhea dura­tion 0.73 days statistically significantly (MD= -0.73; 95% CI-1.22 to -0.24, p<0.003, zinc administration reduced pneumonia duration 0.58 days more rapidly and significantly statis­tically not significant (MD -0.58; 95% CI-0.32 to -1.04, p<0.001) than placebo.

Conclusion: Zinc is effective in reducing the duration of diarrhea and treating pneumonia in children under five. 

Keywords: Zinc, Diarrhea, Pneumonia, Meta-analysis

Correspondence:Anastasia Dwi Anggraeni. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl.Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: anastasia1702@student.uns.ac.id. Mobile: 082269344444

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2021), 06(01)

https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublic­health.2021.06.01.06

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