Factors Affecting Presbycusis on Audiogram Overview at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan

Frenky Sorimuda Manullang, Adlin Adnan, Delfitri Munir


Background: Presbycusis incidence is thought to have a relationship with hereditary factors, metabolism, atherosclerosis, noise and lifestyle. The presbycusis classification consists of Sensory (outer hair-cell), neural (ganglion-cell), metabolic (strial atrophy), and conductive cochlea (stiffness of the basi­lar membrane). Factors that influence pres­bycusis include age, gender, genetics, hyper­tension, gout, diabetes mellitus, hyper­choles­terolemia, noise exposure, and smoking. This study aims to determine the factors that influ­ence presbycusis on the audiogram image at H. Adam Malik Hospital Medan.

Subjects and Method: This study was an analytical study with a cross sectional design in elderly patients at the polyclinic. The study was conducted in November to Decem­ber 2019. The dependent variable was the inci­dence of presbycusis. The independent vari­ables were uric acid levels, blood sugar levels, smoking habits, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Data were analyzed by using chi square test.

Results: The prevalence of presbycusis in the 45-59 years age group was 39 people (54.2%) and the 60-74 years age group was 33 people (45.8%). In this study, it shows that male respondents are more than female respondents, where the number of men is 58 people (80.6%) and women are 14 people (19.4%). Based on presbycusis type, there were 33 (45.9%) people (normal), 18 (25%) people (strrial type), 7 (7.9%) people (neural type), 7 (7.9%) people (sensory type), 7 (7.9%) people (cochlear type). High sugar content (OR= 3.33; 95% CI= 1.81 to 6.13; p <0.001), uric acid levels (OR= 2.36; 95% CI= 1.19 to 4.70; p= 0.005), total cholesterol levels (OR= 3.33; 95% CI= 1.81 to 6.13; p <0.001), and smoking (OR= 1.90; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.97; p= 0.016) increased the risk of presbycusis.

Conclusion: High sugar levels, uric acid levels, total cholesterol levels, and smoking habits increase the risk of presbycusis.

Keywords: presbycusis, audiogram image

Correspondence: Frenky Sorimuda Manullang. Faculty of Me­dicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia. Email: manulangdr­fren­ky@­gmail­.com. Mobile: +62-8126394830.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2021), 06(01): 12-20



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