Associations between Physical Activity, Depression, and Quality of Life in Elderly: Meta-Analysis

Fatchurrohmah Ines Prabandari, Bhisma Murti, Hanung Prasetya


Background: The aging process is associated with a greater prevalence of long-term health problems. One of them is a significant increase in problems including mental health problems in the elderly demographic. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about one in every ten elderly people suffer from depress­ion, which is a factor that can reduce the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly. QOL can be concep­tualized as a set of harmonious satis­factions that individuals get in their daily lives by taking into account the physical, psycho­logical and social aspects of life. Good QOL for the elderly can be interpreted as feeling better in carrying out basic daily activities (Activity of Daily Living/ ADLs) properly and living inde­pen­dently. One of the aspects that play an import­ant role in improving the quality of life of the elderly is physical activity. This study aims to determine the average strength of the relation­ship between physical activity and depression and quality of life in the elderly based on the results of previous research.

Subjects and Method: This study is a syste­matic review and meta-analysis using a cross-sectional design. The articles used in this study were obtained from several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Springerlink, and Sciencedirect. The articles used in this study are those published from 2010-2020. The arti­cle search was carried out by considering the eligibility criteria defined using the PICO model. P: Male and female aged ≥ 60 years, I: Physical activity, C: sedentary behavior O: Depression and Quality of Life. The keywords to search for articles were as follows: "physical activity", "depression", "quality of life", "elder­ly", "cross-sectional" and "adjusted odds ratio". The articles included in this study are full text articles with a cross-sectional study design. Articles were collected using PRISMA flow dia­grams and analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

Results: A total of 16 articles were reviewed in this study. The meta-analysis showed that phy­sical activity can reduce the risk of depression in the elderly (aOR= 0.72; 95% CI= 0.52 to 1.00; p<0.001). The meta-analysis also showed that physical activity can improve the quality of life of the elderly (aOR= 1.25; 95% CI= 1.05 to 1.48; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Physical activity can reduce the risk of depression and can improve the quality of life among elderly.

Keywords: physical activity, depression, quality of life, elderly, cross-sectional

Correspondence: Fatchurrohmah Ines Prabandari. Masters Pro­gram in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email:

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(04): 420-434

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