A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure toward the Incidence of Pneumonia in Children Under Five

Maya Ayu Riestiyowati, Setyo Sri Rahardjo, Bhisma Murti

Abstract

Background: Pneumonia is an acute respira­tory infection in which the alveoli are filled with pus and fluids that cause painful respiration and limit oxygen intake. Pneumonia is the main cause of death among children under five in the world, killing more than 800,000 children under five each year, or about 2,200 per day. One of the risk factors for pneumonia in chil­dren under five is exposure to secondhand smoke. This study aimed to estimate the magni­tude of the effect of exposure to secondhand smoke on the incidence of pneumonia in chil­dren under five. 

Subjects and Method: This study used a syste­matic review and meta-analysis technique. There were three article search databases in­cluding Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct with a publication period from 2009-2020. The article search was carried out by con­si­dering the eligibility criteria defined using the PICO model. P: children under five, I: ex­po­sed to secondhand smoke, C: not exposed to second­hand smoke, and O: pneumonia. The key­­words for searching the articles were (risk factors OR passive smoking OR secondhand smoking) AND (pneumonia) AND (children under five). The articles included in this study were full-text articles, articles in English, arti­cles with cross-sectional study design and case-con­trol, articles with adjusted odds ratio re­sults. Articles were collected using PRISMA flow diagrams and analyzed using RevMan 5.3 application.

Results: The total of 12 articles were reviewed in this study. A meta-analysis of three cross-sectional studies showed that exposure to second­hand smoke increased the risk of pneu­monia in children under five (aOR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.38 to 2.01; p <0.001). A meta-ana­lysis of nine case-control studies showed that exposure to secondhand smoke increased the risk of pneumonia in children under five years (aOR= 2.15; 95% CI=1.25 to 3.68; p=0.005).

Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke in­­crea­ses the incidence of pneumonia in chil­dren under five.

Keywords: The exposure to secondhand smoke, pneumonia, children under five.

Correspondence: Maya Ayu Riestiyowati. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami, Pucangsawit, Jebres, Surakarta 57125, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: maaya.­ayuu.­ma­­­@gmail.com.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(04): 410-419
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2020.05.04.03


 

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adane MM, Alene GD, Mereta ST, Wanyo-nyi KL (2020). Prevalence and risk factors of acute lower respiratory in-fection among children living in bio-mass fuel using households: a com-munity-based cross-sectional study in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 20(1): 1-13. doi: 10.1186/s12-889-020-08515-w.


Alnur RD, Ismail D, Padmawati RS (2017). Kebiasaan merokok keluarga serumah dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita di Kabupaten Bantul Tahun 2015. Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat. 33(3): 119-124. https://doi.org/10.22146/bkm.12832.


BPS (2018). Persentase merokok pada pen-duduk umur ≥15 tahun menurut Provinsi, 2015-2018. Jakarta: Badan Pu-sat Statistik.Retrieved from https://-www.bps.go.id/dynamictable/2018/07/02%2015:24:37.29374/1514/persentase-merokok-pada-penduduk-umur-15-tahun-menurut-provinsi-2015-20-16.html

on June 19th, 2020.


CDC (2018). Children in the home. United State: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://-www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/secondhand_smoke/children-home/index.htmon June 22nd, 2020.


CEBMa (2014). Critical appraisal. Amster-dam: Center for evidence based ma-nagement. Retrieved from https://-cebma.org/resources-and-tools/what-is-critical-appraisal/.


Grant CC, Emery D, Milne T, Coster G, For-rest CB, Wall CR, Scragg R, Aickin R, Crengle S, et al. (2012). Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in pre-school-aged children. J Pae-diatr Child Health 5(48): 402-412. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2011.02244.x.


Hoang VT, Dao TL, Minodier P, Nguyen DC, Hoang NT, Dang VN, Gautret P (2019). Risk factors for severe pneu-monia according to WHO 2005 crite-ria definition among children <5 years of age in Thai Binh, Vietnam: A case-control study. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 4(9): 274-280. doi: 10.2991/-jegh.k.191009.001.


Jroundi I, Mahraoui C, Benmessaoud R, Moraleda C, Tligui H, Seffar M, et al. (2014). Risk factors for a poor out-come among children admitted with clinically severe pneumonia to a uni-versity hospital in Rabat, Morocco. Int J Infect Dis. (28): e164-e170. doi: 10.-1016/j.ijid.2014.07.027.


Karki S, Fitzpatrick AL, Shrestha S (2014). Risk factors for pneumonia in child-ren under 5 years in a teaching hospi-tal in Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 48(12): 48-53. https://doi.org/10.312-6/kumj.v12i4.13729.


Kemenkes RI (2013). Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI Nomor 40 Tahun 2013 tentang peta jalan pengendalian dam-pak konsumsi rokok bagi kesehatan. Jakarta: Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.


Kemenkes RI (2018). 75 persen bahaya asap rokok akan dirasakan oleh pe-rokok pasif. Jakarta: Direktorat Pen-cegahan dan Pengendalian Penyakit Tidak Menular. Retrieved from http:-//www.p2ptm.kemkes.go.id/infographic-p2ptm/penyakit-paru-kronik/75-persen-bahaya-asap-rokok-akan-dira-sakan-oleh-perokok-pasif.


Kusumawati I (2010). Hubungan antara status merokok anggota keluarga dengan lama pengobatan ISPA balita di Kecamatan Jenawi. Tesis: Program Pasca Sarjana UNS.


Lian TY, Dorotheo U (2019). The tobacco control atlas ASEAN Region, Fourth Edition. Southeast Asia Tobacco Con-trol Alliance (SEATCA). ISBN: 9786-167824048.


Lima EJF, Mello MJG, Maria, Lopes MIL, Serra GHC, Lima DEP, Correia JB (2016). Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under five years of age in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in Brazil: A case control study. BMC Pediatr 1(16): 1-9. doi: 10.1186/s1288-7-016-0695-6.


Luthfiyana NU, Rahardjo SS, Murti B (2018). Multilevel analysis on the bio-logical, social economic, and environ-mental factors on the risk of pneumo-nia in children under five in Klaten, Central Java. J Epidemiol and Public Health. 3(2): 128-142. doi: https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.20-18.03.02.03.


Mustikarini YA, Rahardjo SS, Qodrijati I, Prasetya H (2019). Contextual effect of village on the risk of pneumonia in children under five in Magetan, East Java. J Epidemiol and Public Health. 4(2): 117-126. doi: https://doi.org/10-.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.02.07.


Ngocho JS, de Jonge MI, Olomi GA, Ma-hande MJ, Msuya SE, Mmbaga BT (2019). Modifiable risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age in re-sourcepoor settings: a case–control study.Trop. Med Int. Health 4(24): 4-84-492. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13211.


Suzuki M, Thiem VD, Yanai H, Matsu-bayashi T, Yoshida L-M, Tho LH, Minh TT, Anh DD, Kilgore PE, Ari-yoshi K (2009). Association of envi-ronmental tobacco smoking exposure with an increased risk of hospital admissions for pneumonia in children under 5 years of age in Vietnam. Tho-rax 64(6): 484-489. doi: 10.1136/thx.-2008.106385.


Uddin KMF, Jahan N, Mannan MA, Ferdo-usi SA, Farhana T, Akhter S, Alam R (2013). Risk factors determining the outcome of 2-12 months age group infants hospitalized with severe pneu-monia. Med Today. 1(25): 7-11. https://doi.org/10.3329/medtoday.v25i1.15901.


UNICEF (2019). Pneumonia. New York: Unite for Children. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-health/pneumonia/.


WHO (2011). Second-hand Tobacco Smoke and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https:-//www.who.int/ceh/capacity/tobacco1.pdf on June 22nd, 2020.


WHO (2018). Tobacco smoking. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/gho/tobacco/use/en/.


WHO (2019). Pneumonia. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/pneumonia.


Yunita A, Murti B, Dewi YLR (2016). Multi-level analysis on the bio-psychosocial and environment factors affecting the risk of pneumonia in infants. J Epidemiol Public Health. 1(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2016.01.01.01.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.