Multilevel Analysis Association of Soil Transmitted Helminths and Stunting in Children Aged 6-12 Years Old in Pinrang District, South Sulawesi

Putri Andini Muslimah, Harsono Salimo, Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

Abstract

Background: Stunting in children is often associated with infectious diseases, one of which is Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH). Worms in child­ren affect the intake, digestion, absorption and metabolism of food which has an impact on reducing the supply of nutrients to the body. This study aimed to determine the relationship between STH and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-12 years in Pinrang, South Sulawesi.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational with cross sectional design. The study was conducted in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, from January to March 2020. A sam­ple of 200 children aged 6-12 years was selected by random sampling. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were worm disease, maternal education, family income, number of family members, maternal body height, low birth weight, length of birth, exclusive breastfeeding, and complementary feed­ing. The data were collected by question­naire and analyzed by a multiple multilevel logistic regression run on STATA13.

Results: The risk of stunting increased with worms (b= 2.11; 95% CI= 1.11 to 3.10; p <0.001), low maternal education (b= 1.08; 95% CI= 0.13 to 2.03; p= 0.025), low income (b= 1.03; 95% CI= 0.05 to 2.02; p= 0.039), number of family (b= 2.13; 95% CI= 1.13 to 3.13; p< 0.001), short maternal height (b= 1.03; 95% CI= 0.10 to 1.96; p= 0.030), LBW (b= 1.45; 95% CI= 0.38 to 2.51; p= 0.007), short birth length (b= 1.91; 95% CI= 0.95 to 2.87; p< 0.001), and inappropriate complementary feed­ing (b= 1.11; 95% CI= 0.21 to 2.11; p= 0.029). The risk of stunting decreased with exclusive breastfeeding (b= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.23 to 1.91; p= 0.045). Village had negligible contextual effect on the stunting with ICC= 8.2%.

Conclusion: The risk of stunting increases with worms, low maternal education, low income, number of family, short maternal height, LBW, short birth length, and inappro­priate complementary feed­ing. The risk of stun­ting decreases with exclusive breastfeed­ing. Village has negligible contextual effect on the stunting.

Keywords: stunting, soil transmitted helminths

Correspondence: Putri Andini Muslimah. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ptriandn15@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285­331663133.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(03): 372-383
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2020.05.03.11.

 

Full Text:

PDF

References

Akombi BJ, Agho KE, Hall JJ, Merom D, Astell-Burt T, Renzaho MN (2017). Stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria: A multilevel analysis. BMC Pediatr, 17(1): 1–16. doi: 10.1186/s12887-016-0770-z.


Andriani M (2014). Peranan gizi dalam siklus kehidupan. (The role of nutrition in the cycle of life.) Jakarta: Kencana Prenadamedia Group.


Azriful, Bujawati E, Habibi, Aeni S, Yusdarif (2018). Determinan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 24-59 bulan di Kelurahan Rangas Kecamatan Bang-gae Kabupaten Majene (Determinants of stunting incidence in children age 24-59 months in Rangas Village, Banggae District, Majene Regency). Al-sihah: The Public Health Science Journal. 10(2): 192–203. doi: 10.242-52/as.v10i2.6874.


Candra A (2011). Hubungan underlying factor dengan kejadian stunting pada anak 1-2 tahun (The relationship between underlying factor and stunt-ing in children aged 1-2 years). J Nutr Health. doi: 10.4324/9781315082417-24.


Dekker LH, Mora-Plazas M, Marin C, Baylin A, Villamor E (2010). Stunting associated with poor socioeconomic and maternal nutrition status and respiratory morbidity in Colombian schoolchildren. Food Nutr Bull, 31(2): 242–250. doi: 10.1177/15648265100-3100207.


Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan (2018). Data stunting Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi Province stunting data). Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Makassar.


Fitria N (2017). Hubungan faktor asupan makanan dan kondisi penyakit dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita di wilayah kerja puskesmas Barombong Kota Makassar (The relationship between food intake factors and disease conditions with the incidence of stunting in children under five in the working area of the Barombong Community Health Center, Makassar City). Skripsi. Makassar: Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar.


Hagos S, Hailemariam D, Woldehanna T, Lindtjørn B (2017). Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geostatistical model. PLoS ONE, 12(2):1–18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170785.


Handini D, Ichsan B, Nirlawati DD (2013). Hubungan tingkat pendapatan keluarga dengan status gizi balita di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kalijambe (The relationship between family income level and nutritional status of children under five in the working area of Kalijambe Health Center). Biomedika, 5(2). doi: 10.23917/biomedika.v5i2.-263.


Hijra H, Muis FS, Kartasurya MI (2016). Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months. Univ-med, 35(3): 146. doi: 10.18051/univ-med.2016.v35.146-155.


Ibrahim IA, Bujawati E, Syahrir S, Adha AS, Mujahida (2019). Analisis determinan kejadian growth failure (stunting) pada anak balita usia 12-36 bulan di Wilayah Pegunungan Desa Bontongan Kecamatan Baraka Kabupaten Enrekang (Determinant analysis of the incidence of growth failure (stunting) in children aged 12-36 months in the mountainous area of Bontongan Village, Baraka District, Enrekang Regency). Al-sihah: The Public Health Science Journal, 11(1): 50–64. doi: 10.24252/as.v11i1.9418.


Ilma NN, Salimo H, Pamungkasari EP (2019). Prevalence and path analysis on the effects of diarrhea and life course determinants on stunting in children under two years of age in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. Matern Child Health J, 4(4): 230–241. doi: 10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.04.02.


Indrastuty D, Pujiyanto P (2019). Determi-nan sosial ekonomi rumah tangga dari balita stunting di Indonesia: Analisis Data Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2014 (Household socio-economic determinants of childhood stunting in Indonesia: Data Analysis of the 2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS)). Jurnal Ekonomi Kesehatan Indonesia, 3(2). doi: 10.7454/eki.v3i2.3004.


Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indone-sia (2013). Buku saku pelayanan kesehatan neonatal esensi (Neonatal health service essential pocket book). Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta.


Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indone-sia (2018a). Buletin Stunting (Stunting Bulletin). Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta.


Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (2018b). RISKESDAS 2018: Executive Summary. Kementerian Kese-hatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta.


Kusumawardhani I (2017). ASI eksklusif, panjang badan lahir, berat badan lahir rendah sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya stunting pada anak usia 6-24 bulan di Puskesmas Lendah II Kulon Progo (Exclusive breastfeeding, birth length, low birth weight as risk factors for stunting in children aged 6-24 months at Puskesmas Lendah II Kulon Progo). Skripsi. Yogyakarta: Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Yogyakarta.


Leo AR, Subagyo HW, Kartasurya MI (2018). Faktor risiko stunting pada anak usia 2-5 tahun di wilayah gunung dan pesisir pantai (Risk factors for stunting in children aged 2-5 years in mountain and coastal areas). Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan Soedirman, 2(1): 51. doi: 10.20884/1.jgp-s.2018.2.1.512.


Susilowati E, Quyumi ER (2019). Peningkatan status gizi dan penurunan infeksi cacing pada anak toddler dengan penerapan dinamika kelompok sosial (Increasing nutritional status and decreasing worm infection in toddlers by application of social group dynamics). J Chem Inf Model, 53(9): 1689–1699. doi: 10.1017/CBO978110-7415324.004.


Nigatu D, Azage M, Motbainor A (2019). Effect of exclusive breastfeeding cessation time on childhood morbidity and adverse nutritional outcomes in Ethiopia: Analysis of the demographic and health surveys. PLoS ONE, 14 (10):1–12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223379.


Ntenda PAM (2019). Association of low birth weight with undernutrition in preschool-aged children in Malawi. Nutrition Journal, 18(1): 1–15. doi: 10.1186/s12937-019-0477-8.


Onis MD, Branca F (2016). Childhood stunting: A global perspective. Matern Child Nutr, (12): 12–26. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12231.


Paramashanti BA, Hadi H, Gunawan IMA (2016). Pemberian ASI eksklusif tidak berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6–23 bulan di Indonesia (Exclusive breastfeeding is not associated with stunting in children aged 6–23 months in Indonesia). IJND, 3(3): 162. doi: 10.21927/ijnd.2015.3-(3).162-174.


Rahma N, Hasanah, Nurfadilah (2018). Perbedaan tingkat kecukupan energi, protein dan status gizi anak sekolah dasar negeri daerah pantai dan daerah pengunungan Kecamatan Sindue (The difference in the level of energy, protein and nutritional status of public elementary school children in coastal areas and mountainous areas of Sindue District). Jurnal Kesehatan, 3(6): 48–60.


Rahman MS, Howlade T, Masud MS, Rahman ML (2016). Association of low-birth weight with malnutrition in children under five years in Bangladesh: Do mother’s education, socio-economic status, and birth interval matter. PLoS ONE. 11(6): 1–16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157814.


Rakhmahayu A, Dewi YLR, Murti B (2019). Logistic regression analysis on the determinants of stunting among children aged 6-24 months in Purworejo Regency, Central Java. Matern. Child Health J, 4(3): 158–169. doi: 10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.03.03.


Suciningtyas PD, Triharini M, Rachmawati PD (2019). Hubungan data demografi keluarga dalam pemberian ASI esklusif anak balita stunting (Relationship of family demographic data in exclusive breastfeeding for stunting in children). Pediomaternal Nursing Journal, 5(1): 132. doi: 10.20473/pm-nj.v5i1.13133.


Sugiyanto J, Raharjo SS, Dewi YLR (2019). The effects of exclusive breastfeeding and contextual factor of village on stunting in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Epidemiol Public Health. 4(3): 222–233. doi: 10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.10.


Swathma D, Lestari H, Ardiansyah RT (2016). Analisis faktor risiko BBLR, panjang badan bayi saat lahir dan riwayat imunisasi dasar terhadap kejadian stunting pada balita usia 12-36 bulan di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kandai Kota Kendari Tahun 2016 (Analysis of LBW risk factors, baby body length at birth and history of basic immunization against the incidence of stunting in toddlers aged 12-36 months in the Work Area of the Kandai Health Center, Kendari City, 2016). E-Journal Unsyiah, 1(3): 1–10.


UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group (2019). Levels and trends in child malnutrition: key findings of the 2019 Edition of the Joint Child Malnutrition Estimate. 1–15. Available at: https://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/jme-2019-key-findings.pdf?ua=1%.


Utami AD, Indarto D, Dewi YLR (2017). The effect of nutrient intake and socioeconomic factor toward stunting incidence among primary school students in Surakarta. J Epidemiol Public Health, 2(1): 1–10. https://doi.org/jepublichealth.2017.02.01.01.


Yadika ADN, Berawi KN, Nasution SH (2019). Pengaruh stunting terhadap perkembangan kognitif dan prestasi belajar (The effect of stunting on cognitive development and learning achievement). Jurnal Majority, 8(2): 273–282.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.