The Effect of Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure and Other Factors Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders among Rice Farmers: A Path Analysis Evidence from Sukoharjo, Central Java

Ayu Laela Fitriyani, Setyo Sri Rahardjo, Bhisma Murti

Abstract

Background: Pesticide is a cheap and effective subs­tance to eradicate pests, yet it has chronic effects, it causes neuropsychiatric disorders. Neu­ro­psychiatric disorders are associated with affect­tive, cognitive, and behavioral disorders. This study aims to analyze the effects of pesticide exposure and psychosocial determinants on neu­ropsychiatric disorders (depression and anxiety).

Subjects and Method: This was a ret­ros­pective cohort study conducted in Sukoharjo, Cen­tral Java, Indonesia. A sample of 200 rice farmers was selected by fixed ex­posure sampling. The dependent variable was depression nd anxiety. The independent variables were organo­phos­phate pesticide exposure and psychosocial fac­tors. The neuropsychiatric disorders were mea­sured using DASS-42 questionnaires. The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: Depression and anxiety were directly increased by high work stress (b= 0.29; 95% CI= 0.19 to 0.38; p< 0.001), depression his­tory of family members (b= 5.71; 95% CI= 3.16 to 8.26; p<0.001), grief and loss (b= 3.21; 95% CI= 0.99 to 5.42; p= 0.005), and past trauma (b= 4.08; 95% CI= 1.81 to 6.34; p<0.001). Depression and anxiety were indirectly affected by the organo­phosphate pesticide expo­sure, age through the use of personal protective equip­ment (PPE), and latest education through the use of PPE.

Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are directly increased by high work stress, depression his­tory of family members, grief and loss, and past trauma. Depression and anxiety are indirect­ly affected by the organo­phosphate pesticide expo­sure, age through the use of personal pro­tective equip­ment (PPE), and latest education through the use of PPE.

Keywords: Neuropsychiatry, organosphosphate pes­ticide exposure, and rice farmers

Correspondence: Ayu Laela Fitriyani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ayu­lf030395@gmail.com. Mobile: +62857­96­33­39­86.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(02): 182-194
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2020.05.02.06

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