Risk Factors of Prenatal and Postnatal Depression

Monica Kartini, Berlian Nurtyashesti Kusumadewi


Background: The postpartum period is the time when many women or mothers ex­­pe­rience vulnerability to various psychological pro­­b­lems that can cause significant distress for them, especially postpartum depression (PPD). The­re­fore, it is important to do depression screen­­­ing and assessment of risk factors for post­partum depression in pregnant women and new mot­­hers. This study aimed to determine the inci­dence and biopsychosocial risk factors for post­partum depression.

Subjects and Method: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Bulu, Kranggan, and Kedu health centers, in Temanggung, Central Java. A sample of 100 preg­nant women with 32-42 weeks gestation aged was selected for this study. The dependent variable was post­­partum depression (PPD). The inde­pen­dent vari­ables were marital satisfaction, sympt­oms of premens­trual syndrome, social support, gene­ral health status, and parenting self-efficacy/PSE. PPD was measured by the Edinburgh Post­­natal Depression Scale. Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) was measured by the Karitane parenting confidence scale. The data were ana­lyz­ed by Chi square.

Results: 5% of subjects have a severe risk of experiencing PPD. PSE was positively correlated with PPD (OR = 10.29; 95% CI = 1.20 to 88.07; p= 0.008), while marital satisfaction, social sup­port, premenstrual syndrome symptoms and ge­ne­­ral health status were not statistically sig­ni­ficant with PPD incidence.

Conclusion: PSE increased the risk of PPD.

Keywords: post partum depression, parenting self-efficacy


Monica Kartini. Nursing Academy of Ngesti Wa­lu­yo. Email: monica.kartini@gmail.com. Mo­bi­le: 081392445771.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(01): 97-105

Full Text:



Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS (2016). ‘Prediction of incidence and biopsychosocio cultural risk factors of post-partum depression immediately after birth in an Iranian population’, Arch Med Sci, 12(5): 1043–1051. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.58642.

Anding JE, Rohrle B, Grieshop M, Schucking B, Christiansen H (2016). ‘Couple comorbidity and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in the first two weeks following delivery’, J Affect Disord. Elsevier, 190: 300–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.033.

Bansil P, Kuklina EV, Meikle SF, Posner SF, Kourtis AP, Ellington SR, Jamieson DJ (2010). Maternal and fetal outcomes among women with depression, J Women’s Health, 19(2): 329–334. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2009.1387.

Cheng ER, Rifas SL, Perkins ME, Rich JW, Gillman MW, Wright R, Taveras EM (2016). The influence of antenatal partner support on pregnancy outcomes. J Women’s Health, 25(7): 672–679. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2015.5462.

Choi SY, Kim EJ, Ryu E, Chang KO, Park MN (2012). Postpartum depression and parental self-efficacy: A comparison of Native Korean and Vietnamese immigrant mothers in Korea. J Transcult Nurs, 23(2): 181–187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659611434057.

Endraswara S (2017). Berpikir Positif Orang Jawa. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Narasi.

Haslam DM, Pakenham KI, Smith A (2006). Social support and postpartum depressive symptomatology: the mediating role of maternal self-efficacy, Infant Ment, 27(3): 276–291. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20092.

Hutauruk IS (2011). Indonesian version of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 5(2). https://www.ejournal.gunadarma.ac.id/index.php/psiko/article/view/390.

Kargar JM, Zare A, Taghizadeganzadeh M, Rahmanian KA (2014). A study of marital satisfaction among nondepressed and depressed mothers after childbirth in Jahrom, Iran, 2014. Glob J health Sci, 7(3): 140–146. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n3p140.

Kepple A, Lee E, Haq N, Rubinow DR, Schmidt PJ (2016). History of Postpartum Depression in a Clinicbased Sample of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry, 77(4): 415-420. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m09779.

Kohlhoff J, Barnett B (2013). Parenting self-efficacy: Links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment. Early Hum Dev, 89: 249–256. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.01.008.

Kusumastuti, Astuti DP, Hendriyati S (2015). Hubungan Karakteristik Individu dengan Depresi Postpartum pada Ibu Postpartum di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kabupaten Kebumen (Relationship of Individual Characteristics with Postpartum Depression in Postpartum Mothers at the Kebumen District General Hospital). Jurnal Involusi Kebidanan, 5(9): 1–17. http://www.ejournal.stikesmukla.ac.id/index.php/involusi/article/download/57/53

Lee JY, Hwang JY (2015). A study on post-partum symptoms and their related factors in Korea. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. Elsevier Ltd, 54(4): 355–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2014.04.030.

Malus A, Szyluk J, Galinska SB, Konarzewska B (2016). Incidence of postpartum depression and couple relationship quality. Psychiatr Pol, 50(6): 1135–1146. https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/61569.

Mohammadi A, Aghdam GA, Ranji S (2011) ‘Comparison of postpartum depression of working women and housewives and its relationship with social support and marital adjustment. Procedia Soc Behav, 30: 1837–1839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.354.

Papamarkou M, Sarafis P, Kaite CP (2017). Investigation of the association between quality of life and depressive symptoms during postpartum period: A correlational study. BMC Women’s Health, 17(1): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0473-0.

Perry SE, Marlyn J, Hockenberry, Deitra LL, Lisa KL, David D, Cheryl AS (2014). Maternal Child Nursing Care. Fifth. Canada: Elsevier Mosby.

Roomruangwong C, Withayavanitchai S, Maes M (2016). Antenatal and post-natal risk factors of postpartum depression symptoms in Thai women: A case-control study. IJSHRH. Elsevier BV, 10: 25–31. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.03.001.

Soep (2011). Penerapan Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale Sebagai Alat Deteksi Risiko Depresi Nifas pada Primipara dan Multipara (Application of Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale as a Detection Risk for Post-partum Depression in Primipara and Multipara). Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 14(2): 95–100. http://jki.ui.ac.id/index.php/jki/article/view/315

Stoner R, Camilleri V, Calleja AJ, Schembri WP (2017). The cytokine hormone axis–the link between premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression’, Gynecol Endocrinol, 33(8): 588–592. https://doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2017.1318-367.

Stuart G (2013). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. St. Louis Missouri: Mosby.


  • There are currently no refbacks.