Risk Factors of Prenatal and Postnatal Depression

Monica Kartini, Berlian Nurtyashesti Kusumadewi

Abstract

Background: The postpartum period is the time when many women or mothers ex­­pe­rience vulnerability to various psychological pro­­b­lems that can cause significant distress for them, especially postpartum depression (PPD). The­re­fore, it is important to do depression screen­­­ing and assessment of risk factors for post­partum depression in pregnant women and new mot­­hers. This study aimed to determine the inci­dence and biopsychosocial risk factors for post­partum depression.

Subjects and Method: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Bulu, Kranggan, and Kedu health centers, in Temanggung, Central Java. A sample of 100 preg­nant women with 32-42 weeks gestation aged was selected for this study. The dependent variable was post­­partum depression (PPD). The inde­pen­dent vari­ables were marital satisfaction, sympt­oms of premens­trual syndrome, social support, gene­ral health status, and parenting self-efficacy/PSE. PPD was measured by the Edinburgh Post­­natal Depression Scale. Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) was measured by the Karitane parenting confidence scale. The data were ana­lyz­ed by Chi square.

Results: 5% of subjects have a severe risk of experiencing PPD. PSE was positively correlated with PPD (OR = 10.29; 95% CI = 1.20 to 88.07; p= 0.008), while marital satisfaction, social sup­port, premenstrual syndrome symptoms and ge­ne­­ral health status were not statistically sig­ni­ficant with PPD incidence.

Conclusion: PSE increased the risk of PPD.

Keywords: post partum depression, parenting self-efficacy

Correspondence:

Monica Kartini. Nursing Academy of Ngesti Wa­lu­yo. Email: monica.kartini@gmail.com. Mo­bi­le: 081392445771.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(01): 97-105
https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2020.05.01.10

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