The Ecological Effect of Village and Biopsychosocial Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Elderly in Surakarta, Central Java

Dwi Tour Kumalasari, Bhisma Murti, Vitri Widyaningsih


Background: Along with the increasing number of the elderly, there are many problems expe­ri­enced by the elderly including not educated, do not get access to health, do not have old age insurance, and do not have social support from family or friends to care for them. Elderly people had high vulnerable risk to experience various psychological and physical problems. This study aimed to analyze the influence of biopsychosocial and contextual village social capital in the elderly.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross sec­ti­o­nal study conducted in Surakarta, Central Java, in December 2019. A sample of 200 elderly was sel­ected by simple random sampling at the individual level and stratified simple random sampling at the village level. The dependent vari­able was quality of life. The independent vari­ables were education, income, marital status, BMI, physical activity, locus of control, family sup­­port, social support, and social capital. The data was collected by ques­tion­naire. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression run on Stata 13

Results: Quality of life improved by education ≥elementary school (b= 2.72; 95% CI= 0.17 to 5.26; p= 0.036), income ≥Rp 1,800,000 (b= 2.90; 95% CI= 0.71 to 5.10; p= 0.010), married (b= 2.37; 95% CI= 0.13 to 4.62; p= 0.038), BMI (b= 4.01; 95% CI= 1.50 to 6.53; p= 0.002), good physical activity (b= 2.26; 95 % CI= 0.33 to 4.20; p= 0.022), internal locus of control (b= 2.69; 95% CI= 0.41 to 4.98; p= 0.021), strong family support (b= 2.88; 95% CI= 0.48 to 5.28; p= 0.018), strong social support (b= 2.28; 95% CI= 0.02 to 4.55; p= 0.048), and good social capital (b= 2.30; 95% CI= 0.11 to 4.51; p= 0.040). Village had a contextual effect on the quality of life of el­derly with intra-class correlation (ICC)= 40.52%.

Conclusion: Quality of life improves by educa­tion ≥elementary school, high income, married, BMI, good physical activity, internal locus of control, strong family support, strong social sup­port, and good social capital. Village has a con­textual effect on the quality of life of elderly.

Keywords: quality of life, biopsychosocial, elderly, multilevel analysis

Correspondence: Dwi Tour Kumalasari. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ku­ma­­zah­ra@­ Mobile: +6281­216­417536.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health 5(1): 31-44

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